A laboratory study of the aggressive behaviour of the vole (Microtus agrestis) has been made as part of an investigation of the consequences of CHITTY's hypothesis concerning the cause of vole population cycles. Adult male voles will attack other voles, whether male or female. Some males are more successful in fights than others and they come to be the dominants of the groups to which they belong. Females in advanced pregnancy or those nursing a litter will attack any animals which come near the nest, including dominants that had formerly chased them. Before a male attacks another vole he may move in a jerky fashion through the cage. The jerky movements possibly indicate conflict between aggression and flight. Or an aggressively motivated male may stay in one small area of a cage with his body hunched and with hair erected. While staying at the same spot his legs may make walking movements (marking time), he may turn round on the spot (waltzing), or still retaining the hunched posture and erected hair, he may travel with frequent changes of direction and with short, rapid, leg movements through part of the cage (dancing). This behaviour seems also to indicate activation of both the aggressive and the flight drives, the walking movements being part of the appetitive behaviour of both drives. Waltzing and the frequent changes in direction of movement in dancing, can be regarded as representing the taxis component of attack (moving towards an opponent) and of escape (moving away from an opponent). If an aggressive vole succeeds in catching a subordinate, he may settle upon him and inflict severe wounds. However, a subordinate, before being caught, may retaliate by turning and facing the pursuer. The subordinate then lunges with his incisors bared at the oncoming aggressive animal, or, squatting on his hindquarters, squeals loudly each time the aggressive animal comes near. The retaliation of a subordinate often causes a dominant to retire. Occasionally a subordinate vole that is being chased stops suddenly with his tail erected sharply. The dominant may still be quite near, yet there will not be an attack. This posture of the subordinate may subserve appeasement, as may also the supine posture sometimes assumed by subordinates immediately in front of dominants. When a dominant retires from a retaliating subordinate, he may go to another part of the cage and dig in the sawdust with his fore and hindlegs. This behaviour seems to be a displacement activity, the digging being autochthonously employed in food seeking, tunnel construction and defaecation or urination. The displacement digging is probably caused by the activation of the flight drive in an animal whose aggressive drive is highly activated. Following such digging activity, the dominant animal may re-approach the subordinate inducing it to flee, or the subordinate's repeated retaliation may once more cause the dominant to retire and to do some further displacement digging. In between the successive approaches of an aggressive dominant to a retaliating subordinate, the subordinate may briefly brush its nose with its fore paws. This also seems to be a displacement activity, autochthonously forming part of toileting. Displacement toilet can be interpreted as being caused by slight activation of the aggressive drive of an animal whose flight drive is highly activated.
Kaschnitz-Weinbergs Essay von 1944, einer der Grundlagentexte der Strukturforschung, befasst sich mit der Religion und Architektur der Megalithkultur, um zu erklären, warum Griechen und Römer ganz unterschiedliche Konzeptionen von Form und Raum in Architektur und Bildhauerei realisierten. Kaschnitz setzt die griechische Konzeption mit prähistorischen Kulturen in Beziehung, die Ahnen und Gottheiten in phallischen, aufrechten Monumenten verehrten. Er entdeckt die Vorgeschichte der römischen Konzeption in der Höhle, umhüllenden Räumen, die den Uterus der Mutter Erde evozierten. Dem Originaltext der englischen Erstübersetzung sind eine Einführung des Herausgebers, rekonstruierte Anmerkungen und eine umfassende Bibliographie beigegeben.
A timeless essay on the underlying structures of classical art and architecture.
This fundamental essay in the tradition of Vienna-School Structuralism traces the religious and sexual drives that gave rise to the distinct forms of Greek and Roman art and architecture. Kaschnitz demonstrates how the worship of male ancestors with upright stone monuments led to the Greek temple and classical sculpture--impenetrable forms dominating space and the viewer. Worship of the life-giving fertility of the mother-goddesses required underground, cave-like spaces that underlie the volumetric interiors of Roman and Etruscan temples that surround and enclose the viewer. The extensive bibliography, invoking a wide range of sources, provides invaluable insight into the wide range of disciplines that Kaschnitz explored, from comparative ethnography to folk psychology.
Kaschnitz-Weinbergs Essay von 1944, einer der Grundlagentexte der Strukturforschung, befasst sich mit der Religion und Architektur der Megalithkultur, um zu erklären, warum Griechen und Römer ganz unterschiedliche Konzeptionen von Form und Raum in Architektur und Bildhauerei realisierten.
Kaschnitz setzt die griechische Konzeption mit prähistorischen Kulturen in Beziehung, die Ahnen und Gottheiten in phallischen, aufrechten Monumenten verehrten. Er entdeckt die Vorgeschichte der römischen Konzeption in der Höhle, umhüllenden Räumen, die den Uterus der Mutter Erde evozierten. Dem Originaltext der englischen Erstübersetzung sind eine Einführung des Herausgebers, rekonstruierte Anmerkungen und eine umfassende Bibliographie beigegeben.
Increasing colonization of non-native amphipod species in the River Thames, United Kingdom, has altered aquatic ecology and called existing management practices into question. We studied the distribution patterns of recent non-native (Dikerogammarus haemobaphes (Eichwald, 1841)), established non-native (Crangonyx pseudogracilis (Bousfield, 1958)), and native amphipod (Gammarus pulex (Linnaeus, 1758)) species, as well as habitat and human influences across 84 sites in the upper Thames catchment. Our findings showed widespread distribution and density of G. pulex relative to D. haemobaphes, suggesting that the full impact of the current spread has yet to be felt since its 2012 introduction. Different habitat utilization patterns are explained through habitat partitioning: both D. haemobaphes and C. pseudogracilis occupied vegetative habitats, not pebble/gravel habitats where the native G. pulex was most often found. The association between D. haemobaphes and boating presence implies that effective biosecurity would be best focused on boat traffic in the Thames and Cherwell rivers.