Margarida Espada, John T. Jones and Manuel Mota

We have previously identified two secreted glutathione S-transferases (GST) expressed in the pharyngeal gland cell of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, which are upregulated post infection of the host. This study examines the functional role of GSTs in B. xylophilus biology. We analysed the expression profiles of all predicted GSTs in the genome and the results showed that they belong to kappa and cytosolic subfamilies and the majority are upregulated post infection of the host. A small percentage is potentially secreted and none is downregulated post infection of the host. One secreted protein was confirmed as a functional GST and is within a cluster that showed the highest expression fold change in infection. This enzyme has a protective activity that may involve host defences, namely in the presence of terpenoid compounds and peroxide products. These results suggest that GSTs secreted into the host participate in the detoxification of host-derived defence compounds and enable successful parasitism.

Sophie Mantelin, Peter Thorpe and John T. Jones

There has been a huge amount of work put into identifying and characterising effectors from plant-parasitic nematodes in recent years. Although this work has provided insights into the mechanisms by which nematodes can infect plants, the potential translational outputs of much of this research are not always clear. This short article will summarise how developments in effector biology have allowed, or will allow, new control strategies to be developed, drawing on examples from nematology and from other pathosystems.

Tiasei Kikuchi, Peter J.A. Cock, Johannes Helder and John T. Jones

While the majority of Aphelenchoides species are fungivorous, some species are plant parasites that have retained the ability to feed on fungi. Aphelenchoides besseyi is an important and widespread pathogen that causes ‘white tip’ disease on rice. This migratory endoparasitic nematode makes a significant contribution to the estimated $US 16 billion worth of damage caused by nematodes to rice crops. Here we describe a small-scale analysis of the transcriptome of A. besseyi. After sequencing, QC and assembly, approximately 5000 contigs were analysed. Bioinformatic analysis allowed 375 secreted proteins to be identified, including orthologues of proteins known to be secreted by other nematodes. One contig could encode an A. besseyi orthologue of a GHF45 cellulase, similar to those present in Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. No transcripts similar to GHF5 cellulases were present in this dataset.

Sebastian Eves-van den Akker, Catherine J. Lilley, John T. Jones and Peter E. Urwin

Several structures associated with feeding by plant-parasitic nematodes have been described using two terms, feeding tubes and feeding plugs. However, both of these terms encompass multiple structures of independent evolution, some of which are functionally distinct. We have reviewed the literature on both structures and provide a new perspective on the function of intracellular feeding tubes to maintain the integrity and efficacy of the feeding site. We propose that they provide sufficient hydraulic resistance against the feeding site pressure to prevent it from collapsing during feeding. In addition, we propose that extracellular feeding tubes of migratory ectoparasites should be considered as the functional analogue of the stylet of all other plant-parasitic nematodes for withdrawal of host cell cytoplasm and, therefore, provide an example of convergent evolution. We also suggest that the main role of the feeding plug, irrespective of origin or composition, may be in adhesion.

Yuanyuan Mei, Peter Thorpe, Athanas Guzha, Annelies Haegeman, Vivian C. Blok, Katrin MacKenzie, Godelieve Gheysen, John T. Jones and Sophie Mantelin

Analysis of the genome sequence of the potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida, has shown that a substantial gene family (approximately 300 sequences) of proteins containing a SPRY domain is present in this species. This is a huge expansion of the gene family as compared to other organisms, including other plant-parasitic nematodes. Some SPRY domain proteins from G. pallida and G. rostochiensis have signal peptides for secretion and are deployed as effectors. One of these SPRYSEC proteins has been shown to suppress host defence responses. We describe further analysis of this gene family in G. pallida. We show that only a minority (10%) of the SPRY domain proteins in this species have a predicted signal peptide for secretion and that the presence of a signal peptide is strongly correlated with the corresponding gene being expressed at the early stages of parasitism. The data suggest that while the gene family is greatly expanded, only a minority of SPRY domain proteins in G. pallida are SPRYSEC candidate effectors. We show that several new SPRYSECs from G. pallida are expressed in the dorsal gland cell and demonstrate that some, but not all, of the SPRYSECs can suppress the hypersensitive response induced by co-expression of the resistance gene Gpa2 and its cognate avirulence factor RBP-1 in Nicotiana benthamiana.

Somnath S. Pokhare, Samer S. Habash, John T. Jones, Abdelnaser Elashry and Florian M.W. Grundler

Summary

This paper presents studies on the life cycle of Heterodera sacchari under in vitro conditions. Pluronic gel was used as a medium for growth of H. sacchari. The life cycle was completed in 7-9 weeks on rice (Oryza sativa, ‘Nipponbare’). After infection, juveniles developed and reached the reproducing adult female stage at 25 days post inoculation (dpi). At 35 dpi, all females produced eggs in various numbers. Some females were translucent and eggs inside could be counted. At 49 dpi females started to tan and developed into dark brown cysts. Hatching of H. sacchari juveniles from cysts could be stimulated by 3 mM ZnCl2 but not by rice root exudates. The in vitro culture of H. sacchari on Pluronic gel can be used efficiently to collect post-infective nematode/host samples at different time points for various studies and to screen different rice cultivars for resistance/susceptibility.

Matthew Amster, Jérôme Rousseau, Atsushi Ota, Johan Talens, Wanda Avé, Johannes Salilah, Peter Boomgaard, Sandra Pannell, H.J.M. Claessen, Geoffrey M. White, H.J.M. Claessen, Judith Huntsman, Hans Gooszen, Gavin W. Jones, Rens Heringa, Ruth Barnes, Rens Heringa, John Guy, H.M.J. Maier, David T. Hill, John N. Miksic, Helena A. Bemmel, Remco Raben, Paul Beckum, Cornelia M.J. Sluys, Colin Nicholas, David Stuart-Fox, Herman C. Kemp, Sikko Visscher, Lynn Pan, Sikko Visscher, Jurgen Rudolph, Edwin Wieringa, Perry Moree, Edwin Wieringa and Monique Zaini-Lajoubert

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G.W.J. Drewes, Taufik Abdullah, Th. End, T.Valentino Sitoy, R. Hagesteijn, David G. Marr, R. Hagesteijn, Constance M. Wilson, Barbara Harrisson, John S. Guy, V.J.H. Houben, G.D. Larson, Marijke J. Klokke, Stephanie Morgan, Liaw Yock Fang, Mohamad Jajuli, S.D.G. Lima, A.B. Adam, J. Thomas Lindblad, K.M. Robinson, Pauline Lunsingh Scheurleer, J.E. Lohuizen-de Leeuw, H.M.J. Maier, V. Matheson, Wolfgang Marschall, Sandra A. Niessen, Peter Meel, Ben Scholtens, Anke Niehof, Patrick Guinness, C.H.M. Nooy-Palm, Toby Alice Volkman, Gert J. Oostindie, Jean Louis Poulalion, Harry A. Poeze, Bob Hering, Harry A. Poeze, S. Pompe, Philipus M. Hadjon, J.M.C. Pragt, Volker Moeller, J.J. Ras, Friedrich Seltmann, R. Roolvink, Russell Jones, R. Roolvink, Russell Jones, Wim Rutgers, Harry Theirlynck, C. Salmon, John R. Clammer, C. Salmon, Ingo Wandelt, Mathieu Schoffeleers, Mathieu Schoffeleers, Jules Palm, Henk Schulte Nordholt, H. Saher, G.J. Schutte, W.Ph. Coolhaas, H. Steinhauer, Jeff Siegel, H. Steinhauer, L.E. Visser, Taufik Abdullah, H.A.J. Klooster, Maarten Wee and Jan Breman

- G.W.J. Drewes, Taufik Abdullah, Islam and society in Southeast Asia, Institute of Southeast Asian studies, Singapore, 1986, XII and 348 pp., Sharon Siddique (eds.) - Th. van den End, T.Valentino Sitoy, A history of Christianity in the Philippines. The initial encounter , Vol. I, Quezon City (Philippines): New day publishers, 1985. - R. Hagesteijn, David G. Marr, Southeast Asia in the 9th to 14th centuries, Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian studies and the research school of Pacific studies of the Australian National University, 1986, 416 pp., A.C. Milner (eds.) - R. Hagesteijn, Constance M. Wilson, The Burma-Thai frontier over sixteen decades - Three descriptive documents, Ohio University monographs in international studies, Southeast Asia series No. 70, 1985,120 pp., Lucien M. Hanks (eds.) - Barbara Harrisson, John S. Guy, Oriental trade ceramics in South-east Asia, ninth to sixteenth century, Oxford University Press, Singapore, 1986. [Revised, updated version of an exhibition catalogue issued in Australia in 1980, in the enlarged format of the Oxford in Asia studies of ceramic series.] 161 pp. with figs. and maps, 197 catalogue ills., numerous thereof in colour, extensive bibliography, chronol. tables, glossary, index. - V.J.H. Houben, G.D. Larson, Prelude to revolution. Palaces and politics in Surakarta, 1912-1942. VKI 124, Dordrecht/Providence: Foris publications 1987. - Marijke J. Klokke, Stephanie Morgan, Aesthetic tradition and cultural transition in Java and Bali. University of Wisconsin, Center for Southeast Asian studies, Monograph 2, 1984., Laurie Jo Sears (eds.) - Liaw Yock Fang, Mohamad Jajuli, The undang-undang; A mid-eighteenth century law text, Center for South-East Asian studies, University of Kent at Canterbury, Occasional paper No. 6, 1986, VIII + 104 + 16 pp. - S.D.G. de Lima, A.B. Adam, The vernacular press and the emergence of modern Indonesian consciousness (1855-1913), unpublished Ph. D. thesis, School of Oriental and African studies, University of London, 1984, 366 pp. - J. Thomas Lindblad, K.M. Robinson, Stepchildren of progress; The political economy of development in an Indonesian mining town, Albany: State University of New York Press, 1986, xv + 315 pp. - Pauline Lunsingh Scheurleer, J.E. van Lohuizen-de Leeuw, Indo-Javanese Metalwork, Linden-Museum, Stuttgart, Staatliches Museum für Völkerkunde, 1984, 218 pp. - H.M.J. Maier, V. Matheson, Perceptions of the Haj; Five Malay texts, Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian studies (Research notes and discussions paper no. 46), 1984; 63 pp., A.C. Milner (eds.) - Wolfgang Marschall, Sandra A. Niessen, Motifs of life in Toba Batak texts and textiles, Verhandelingen KITLV 110. Dordrecht/Cinnaminson: Foris publications, 1985. VIII + 249 pp., 60 ills. - Peter Meel, Ben Scholtens, Opkomende arbeidersbeweging in Suriname. Doedel, Liesdek, De Sanders, De kom en de werklozenonrust 1931-1933, Nijmegen: Transculturele Uitgeverij Masusa, 1986, 224 pp. - Anke Niehof, Patrick Guinness, Harmony and hierarchy in a Javanese kampung, Asian Studies Association of Australia, Singapore: Oxford University Press, 1986, 191 pp. - C.H.M. Nooy-Palm, Toby Alice Volkman, Feasts of honor; Ritual and change in the Toraja Highlands, Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, Illinois Studies in Anthropology no. 16, 1985, IX + 217 pp., 2 maps, black and white photographs. - Gert J. Oostindie, Jean Louis Poulalion, Le Surinam; Des origines à l’indépendance. La Chapelle Monligeon, s.n., 1986, 93 pp. - Harry A. Poeze, Bob Hering, The PKI’s aborted revolt: Some selected documents, Townsville: James Cook University of North Queensland. (Occasional Paper 17.) IV + 100 pp. - Harry A. Poeze, Biografisch woordenboek van het socialisme en de arbeidersbeweging in Nederland; Deel I, Amsterdam: Stichting tot Beheer van Materialen op het Gebied van de Sociale Geschiedenis IISG, 1986. XXIV + 184 pp. - S. Pompe, Philipus M. Hadjon, Perlindungan hukum bagi rakyat di Indonesia, Ph.D thesis Airlangga University, Surabaya: Airlangga University Press, 1985, xviii + 308 pp. - J.M.C. Pragt, Volker Moeller, Javanische bronzen, Staatliche Museen Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Museum für Indische Kunst, Berlin, 1985. Bilderheft 51. 62 pp., ill. - J.J. Ras, Friedrich Seltmann, Die Kalang. Eine Volksgruppe auf Java und ihre Stamm-Myth. Ein beitrag zur kulturgeschichte Javas, Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag Wiesbaden GmbH, 1987, 430 pp. - R. Roolvink, Russell Jones, Hikayat Sultan Ibrahim ibn Adham, Berkeley: Center for South and Southeast Asia Studies, University of California, Monograph Series no. 57, 1985. ix, 332 pp. - R. Roolvink, Russell Jones, Hikayat Sultan Ibrahim, Dordrecht/Cinnaminson: Foris, KITLV, Bibliotheca Indonesica vol. 24, 1983. 75 pp. - Wim Rutgers, Harry Theirlynck, Van Maria tot Rosy: Over Antilliaanse literatuur, Antillen Working Papers 11, Caraïbische Afdeling, Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, Leiden, 1986, 107 pp. - C. Salmon, John R. Clammer, ‘Studies in Chinese folk religion in Singapore and Malaysia’, Contributions to Southeast Asian Ethnography no. 2, Singapore, August 1983, 178 pp. - C. Salmon, Ingo Wandelt, Wihara Kencana - Zur chinesischen Heilkunde in Jakarta, unter Mitarbeit bei der Feldforschung und Texttranskription von Hwie-Ing Harsono [The Wihara Kencana and Chinese Therapeutics in Jakarta, with the cooperation of Hwie-Ing Harsono for the fieldwork and text transcriptions], Kölner ethopgraphische Studien Bd. 10, Berlin: Dietrich Reimer Verlag, 1985, 155 pp., 1 plate. - Mathieu Schoffeleers, 100 jaar fraters op de Nederlandse Antillen, Zutphen: De Walburg Pers, 1986, 191 pp. - Mathieu Schoffeleers, Jules de Palm, Kinderen van de fraters, Amsterdam: De Bezige Bij, 1986, 199 pp. - Henk Schulte Nordholt, H. von Saher, Emanuel Rodenburg, of wat er op het eiland Bali geschiedde toen de eerste Nederlanders daar in 1597 voet aan wal zetten. De Walburg Pers, Zutphen, 1986, 104 pp., 13 ills. and map. - G.J. Schutte, W.Ph. Coolhaas, Generale missiven van Gouverneurs-Generaal en Raden aan Heren XVII der Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie, VIII: 1725-1729, Rijks Geschiedkundige Publicatiën, Grote Serie 193, ‘s-Gravenhage, 1985, 275 pp. - H. Steinhauer, Jeff Siegel, Language contact in a plantation environment. A sociolinguistic history of Fiji, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987, xiv + 305 pp. [Studies in the social and cultural foundations of language 5.] - H. Steinhauer, L.E. Visser, Sahu-Indonesian-English Dictionary and Sahu grammar sketch, Verhandelingen van het KITLV 126, Dordrecht: Foris Publications, 1987, xiv + 258 pp., C.L. Voorhoeve (eds.) - Taufik Abdullah, H.A.J. Klooster, Indonesiërs schrijven hun geschiedenis: De ontwikkeling van de Indonesische geschiedbeoefening in theorie en praktijk, 1900-1980, Verhandelingen KITLV 113, Dordrecht/Cinnaminson: Foris Publications, 1985, Bibl., Index, 264 pp. - Maarten van der Wee, Jan Breman, Control of land and labour in colonial Java: A case study of agrarian crisis and reform in the region of Ceribon during the first decades of the 20th century, Verhandelingen of the Royal Institute of Linguistics and Anthropology, Leiden, No. 101, Dordrecht: Foris Publications, 1983. xi + 159 pp.