Scholarship on the formation of the Atlantic world through contributions from Europe, Africa and the Americas has grown in recent decades. The results offer new understandings of the transformations in ethnic and religious identity faced by peoples from all the surrounding continents. Long used by scholars of Jewish studies, records from the Spanish and Portuguese Inquisitions have become an important source for historians of Africans and Amerindians in the Iberian colonial orbit. Using these and other materials, this book explores race, religion and politics among three newly and incompletely Christianized groups in the seventeenth century: Judeoconversos, Afroiberians and Amerindians. This fresh cross-cultural analysis brings these differing trajectories into dialogue.