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Abstract

Like other Western countries, in the Netherlands women continue to demonstrate higher levels of religiosity than men. In this article, we set out to explain this Dutch religious gender gap regarding belief in God, prayer and church attendance. Using high quality survey data (LISS 2015), a comprehensive model is built combining social and psychological differences between Dutch men and women. These gender differences are operationalized where they are most strongly experienced, i.e. within personal relationships. We find that the gender gaps within Dutch relationships regarding belief in God and prayer can be explained by gendered religious socialization and gendered mental health dependency—and for belief in God additionally by the gendered level of agreeableness. For the gender gap regarding church attendance, gendered religious socialization explains the religious gender gap.

In: Journal of Empirical Theology

Abstract

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic is studied among Dutch and German university students and staff, at the inception of the pandemic in April 2020. The effects of conditions of study and work are studied on mental health, while taking into account the adaptive function of meaning and controlling for relevant demographic characteristics. Results indicate that negative experiences of study and work affect various dimensions of mental health and differ for Dutch and German university contexts. Meaning acts as a resource for mental health, especially regarding dimensions of meaningfulness and trust. Programs for university care are called for in which the insights of this study are taken into account.

Open Access
In: Journal of Empirical Theology