Susana Pereira, José Azevedo and António Machiavelo

Visual communication of information, namely quantitative information, has been increasingly important in journalism, especially in recent years. Among other competences, the visual communication of quantitative information requires mathematical skills. Nevertheless, several authors alert to the misuse of mathematical information in the news. Namely, results of a previous study of the Portuguese press – carried out by the authors of this article – show that there are mathematical errors in more than one third of the news articles (both in weekly and daily newspapers). In this context, it is important to better understand how Portuguese journalists convey quantitative information through graphs. In this article, we present the several types of errors identified in graphs of Portuguese news, highlighting the most prevalent ones and illustrating them with examples.

Dirceu Pratissoli, Teresinha Vinha Zanuncio, Fernando Azevedo de Freitas and José Cola Zanuncio


A monitoring programme was developed from July 1992 to June 1993 using light traps in a plantation of Eucalyptus urophylla in the municipality of Tres Marias, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 437 species of the Lepidoptera order was collected and divided into the following groups: primary pests: 11; secondary pests: 18; species without defined importance to eucalyptus culture: 65; and non-identified species: 343. These four groups had 1295.35, 24.40, 127.20 and 1030.55 individuals per light trap, respectively, with a total of 2477.50 Lepidoptera individuals collected per light trap during this period. Most frequent primary pests were Psorocampa denticulata (Notodontidae), Stenalcidia grosica (Geometridae) and Eupseudosoma aberrans (Arctiidae) which were constant species (present in more than 50% of the collections) with a higher number of individuals during the driest and coldest periods, except P. denticulata, which showed more individuals during the hottest and most humid periods of the year. Faunistic analysis of this area showed a possibility of outbreaks of these primary pests, and mainly of P. denticulata.

Érica Weinstein Teixeira, José Eduardo Serrão, Augusta Carolina Camargo Carmello Moreti, Dihego de Oliveira Azevedo, Maria Luisa Teles Marques Florêncio Alves, Betina Blochtein and José Cola Zanuncio


The acceptance of a new queen in a colony is related to the maintenance of workers court in its surroundings, and for that make up, queens use pheromones produced in its mandibular and in the tergal glands. This study evaluated possible differences in the development of the unicellular tergal glands of virgin and mated queens with different ages, obtained from ovens and colonies. The older virgin and older mated queens had the most developed tergal glands, while queens obtained from colonies had more developed tergal glands than queens reared in ovens.

Marcos Azevedo da Silveira, José Alberto Reis Parise, Reinaldo Calixto de Campos, Luiz Carlos Scavard do Carmo and Nival Nunes de Almeida

The raising and development of problem-based learning and project-based learning in Brazil is presented through historical, methodological and political points of view. Motivations and difficulties to their implementation are reviewed and the current situation is discussed.