The first section of this chapter provides evidence that morphological priming effects can be dissociated from both orthographic and semantic effects. The second section supports the view that morphological relationships are explicitly represented at the level of lexical representation, and appear to be distinct from mere form and meaning relationships based on Spanish data. The third section demonstrates that the relations between cognate words cannot be reduced to a mere form and/or meaning similarity. The fourth section provides evidence consistent with the claim that morphology could serve as a general principle of lexical organization for both monolingual and bilingual subjects. The implications that this claim may have for current proposals on lexical representation and access are discussed in relation to both monolingual and bilingual word recognition models.
The taxonomy and nomenclature of Iberian Algyroides are problematic. The first taxon described, A. hidalgoi Boscá, 1916, was based on a single specimen that was subsequently lost. The description of the second taxon, A. marchi Valverde, 1958, was based on the comparison of a newly discovered population with the original description of A. hidalgoi. However, A. hidalgoi specimens have never been recorded since for any locality. Therefore, three questions need to be addressed: Is A. hidalgoi Boscá, 1916 a morphologically diagnosable taxon different from all non-Iberian species of Algyroides? are A. hidalgoi and A. marchi conspecific? And if so, which is the correct name for the species? To clarify the taxonomic status of the Iberian Algyroides we (1) compare Boscá’s A. hidalgoi original description against the descriptions of all other species of Algyroides, (2) test the accuracy of Boscá’s A. hidalgoi by comparing it against 204 Iberian museum specimens, and (3) designate a neotype of A. hidalgoi that fits the head pholidosis described in the original description. We show that none of the diagnostic characters used by Valverde to differentiate between A. hidalgoi and A. marchi are actually diagnostic, as we found high levels of variability on those characters in the studied specimens. Our results validate Boscá’s description of A. hidalgoi, which fits within the morphological variability observed for southern Iberian Algyroides. As a result, we propose the strict synonymy of A. marchi Valverde, 1958 with A. hidalgoi Boscá, 1916.
The distribution of calanoid copepod habitats in a cyclonic eddy in the Gulf of California was examined. Direct velocity observations revealed that the eddy extended to approximately 550 m depth and 150 km diameter. The established thermocline suggested that active vertical pumping was not occurring because the eddy was in mature phase. A copepod habitat located in the surface mixed layer, showed high abundances, dominated by Subeucalanus subtenuis (Giesbrecht, 1888), whose abundances decrease towards the centre of the eddy. A second habitat, situated in thermocline, had the highest abundances dominated by Nannocalanus minor (Claus, 1863) and Temora discaudata Giesbrecht, 1889. Another habitat, beneath the thermocline, was dominated by most of species recorded in thermocline, but with the lowest abundance. Results suggest that in the mature phase of a cyclonic eddy, the water column stratification induces layering of the calanoid copepod habitats, with the most propitious conditions for their feeding in thermocline.
Island populations of terrestrial mammals often undergo extensive behavioural and morphological changes when separated from mainland populations. Within small mammals these changes have been mainly reported in rodents but were poorly assessed in soricomorphs. In this study we compared mandible morphology and body condition between mainland and island populations of the greater white-toothed shrew, Crocidura russula. The results indicated that island specimens were bigger and heavier than the mainland counterpart, and they showed changes in mandible shape that were associated with higher mechanical potentials. We suggest that these changes might be the result of the interaction of two main factors taking place in the island population: ecological release (i.e. the decrease of predation and interspecific competition), and consequently the increase of intraspecific competition. While the increase in size and body condition in island shrews could be a direct result from reduced predation and interspecific competition, the changes in mandible shape and the increase of both mechanical potential and sexual dimorphism could have arisen indirectly as a response to stronger intraspecific competition.