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  • Author or Editor: Ju Yong Kim x
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Auxarthron reticulatum DY-2 was isolated from field soils in Jeonnam Province, South Korea, and its culture filtrate was active as a bionematicide agent against the pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus mucronatus. The nematicidal activity against B. mucronatus was proportional to the concentration of the culture filtrate. The nematicidal compounds, dimethyl fumarate and bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, were isolated and identified from A. reticulatum DY-2 culture filtrate using silica gel column chromatography combined with high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The bioassays on nematicidal activity revealed that bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate and dimethyl fumarate at 1% concentration resulted in 70 and 100% mortality of B. mucronatus, respectively, after 48 h exposure. This is the first report that these two compounds exhibit a property of nematicidal activity, especially on Bursaphelenchus spp.

In: Nematology

Abstract

Plant essential oils from 43 plant species were tested for their nematicidal activities against the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Responses varied with plant material and concentration. Good nematicidal activity against male, female and juvenile nematodes of B. xylophilus was achieved with essential oils of Cinnamomum verum, Leptospermum petersonii, Asiasarum sieboldi, Boswellia carterii, Pimenta racemosa, Cymbopogon citratus, Mentha spicata, clove and garlic. Garlic and cinnamon oils showed the most potent nematicidal activity among the plant essential oils. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to identification of three major compounds from garlic and two from cinnamon oil. These five compounds from two essential oils were tested individually for their nematicidal activities against the pine wood nematode. Responses varied with compounds and dose. LC50 values of diallyl trisulphide, diallyl disulphide and cinnamyl acetate against juvenile nematode were 2.79, 37.06 and 32.81 μl−1, respectively. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential nematicides against the pine wood nematode.

In: Nematology

Abstract

This research note presents evidence for the oldest Middle Pleistocene Eastern Saharan human activity from the area referred to as the Eastern Desert Atbara River (EDAR), Sudan, which is currently threatened by gold mining. Preliminary results of multifaceted analyses indicate the activity of Homo sapiens during MIS 5 as well as Homo erectus during MIS 7–11 or earlier.

Open Access
In: Journal of African Archaeology