A number of Indian Buddhist texts extant in Sanskrit, Chinese, and/or Tibetan speak of the rootless faith of the patricide Ajātaśatru. Some modern scholars interpret his rootless faith as the faith the Buddha has brought about in him despite the extirpation of his wholesome roots caused by his patricide. This paper argues that such an interpretation is inapplicable to the *Abhidharma-mahāvibhāṣā which claims the non-extirpation of Ajātaśatru’s wholesome roots and explains his rootless faith from five different perspectives. The Sarvāstivāda claim of the non-extirpation of Ajātaśatru’s wholesome roots is probably made in view of his acceptance of the existence of karmic cause and result. The five explanations of his rootless faith in the *Abhidharma-mahāvibhāṣā show the attempts of its compilers/redactors to recycle existing narrative material and to contextualize some of the material into their own doctrinal system.
While the story of the Magadhan king Ajātaśatru’s seeking the Buddha’s advice on attacking the Vṛjis is well known and much studied, rather less known and little studied are stories of his war or conflict with the Vṛjis embedded in Indian Buddhist monastic law codes. This paper explores these lesser-known stories of Ajātaśatru’s warfare, primarily focusing on their function as narrative frames for monastic rules or exceptions (anāpatti) that have no necessary relation to war. It investigates the rationale behind Indian Buddhist jurists’ utilization of these stories to account for monastic legislation, and discusses the perceptions of war reflected therein. Moreover, the paper shows that Indian Buddhist jurists of different sects or schools do not seem to have shared the same stance on predicting warfare, some arguably more ambivalent than others, especially when a prediction proves wrong and is thus liable to shake the laity’s faith and/or harm the mutual trust between monks themselves.
The relationship between the cell wall ultrastructure of waterlogged wooden archeological artifacts and the state of water bound to cell walls and free in voids is fundamental to develop consolidating and drying technologies. Herein, a lacquer-wooden ware and a boat-coffin dating 4th century BC were selected as representative artifacts to study. Wood anatomy results indicated that they belonged to Idesia sp. and Machilus sp., respectively. They exhibited a typical spongy texture, as revealed by SEM observations, and their water contents had increased significantly. Solid state NMR, Py-GC/MS, imaging FTIR microscopy and 2D-XRD results demonstrated that the deterioration resulted from the partial cleavages of both polysaccharide backbones and cellulose hydrogen-bonding networks, almost complete elimination of acetyl side chains of hemicellulose, the partial depletion of β-O-4 interlinks, as well as oxidation and demethylation/demethoxylation of lignin. These further caused the disoriented arrangement of crystalline cellulose, and the decrease in cellulose crystallite dimensions and crystallinity. In consequence, mesopores and macropores formed, and the number of moisture-adsorbed sites and their accessibility increased. Moreover, results on free water deduced by the changes of pore structure and the maximum monolayer water capacity achieved by the GAB model indicated that water in waterlogged archeological wooden artifacts was mainly free water in mesopores.
The soil microbial community research conducted in the field has focused on the genetic diversity of these organisms. In this study, we assessed the proteins expressed in soil microbial communities following the long-term application of mineral fertilizer (NPK) and organic manure (M) to paddy soil, indirect extraction method and separated via two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis and identified using a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) approach. We found that the number of cells in the primary soil in the M treatment was significantly greater than in the NPK and CK treatments. The numbers of cells extracted were consistent with the total cell numbers and the concentration of extracted proteins (CK < NPK < M). 303 and 306 protein spots being detected in the CK map and NPK map, respectively. Eleven spots of interest were identified in the 2D gels, including 8 different protein spots and 3 unique protein spots. Three common proteins involved in protein hydrolysis and glutamate synthesis and metabolism. Eight differentially expressed proteins involved in DNA replication, transcription, protein folding and energy metabolism, the processes of cofactor and vitamin metabolism, transcriptional regulation, recombination and xenobiotic compound biodegradation and metabolism. The long-term application of fertilization resulted in significant changes in the microbial community structure and function, and the long-term application of pig manure significantly increased the microbial biomass and the functional and structural diversity in the soil. It is very interesting to address the MS identification of intracellular proteins from microbial communities under different fertilizer treatments in a paddy soil.