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Judith G. Gardam

Despite the advances made by the international community to outlaw the resort to force by the United Nations Charter, armed conflicts both international and non-international are a fact of every day life. The civilian casualties from such conflicts have assumed catastrophic proportions. Little attention, however, has been paid by scholars to the treatment of noncombatants in armed conflict and the place in international law of the principle fundamental to the law of armed conflict: noncombatant immunity. This work aims to remedy this omission. The author analyses in detail the content of the customary and conventional rules that give effect to this principle, in both international and non-international armed conflict. The importance of such a study is highlighted by the recent Gulf conflict where so many of the States were not bound by the most recent treaty rules protecting noncombatants.

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Edited by Ustina Dolgopol and Judith G. Gardam

The papers in this collection bring together a wide and diverse range of viewpoints to consider how the catastrophic consequences of deadly armed conflict can be addressed.
Commentators are drawn from the United Nations and its agencies, key non- governmental organisations, world-class academic circles, senior members of government, leading human rights lawyers and judges with experience in international criminal law. These experts address deadly conflict in a comprehensive fashion covering all its stages: the causes and prevention of conflict; conflict resolution and peace-building; international criminal law and international humanitarian law and the role of the United Nations, humanitarian organisations and peacekeepers in post conflict situations.
This collection is for those with an existing interest and expertise in international law, international relations, peace studies and criminal justice as well as for those who wish to become conversant with emerging developments in these fields.

Judith G. Gardam and Michelle J. Jarvis

The role that gender plays in determining the experience of those caught up in armed conflict has long been overlooked. Moreover, the extent to which gender influences the international legal regime designed to address the humanitarian problems arising from armed conflict has similarly been ignored. In the early 1990s, prompted by extensive media coverage of the rape of women during the conflict in Bosnia Herzegovina, the international community was forced to critically examine the capacity of international law to respond to such crimes. The prevalence of sexual violence, is, however, merely one aspect of the distinctive impact of conflict on women. Although a range of factors influence the way individual women experience armed conflict, the endemic gender discrimination that exists in all societies is a common theme: from Cambodia, where women land-mine victims are less likely to receive treatment for their injuries than are men; to South Africa, where women widowed during the Apartheid years have become outcasts in their own society. To date, the extent to which international law addresses the myriad of ways in which women are affected by armed conflict has received little attention.
This work takes the experience of women of armed conflict, matches it with existing provisions of international law, and investigates reasons for the silence of the latter in relation to these events for women. It is the first broad-based critique of international humanitarian law from a gender perspective. The contribution of the United Nations, through its focus on human rights, to improving the protection of women in armed conflict is also considered. The authors underscore the need for new approaches to the issue of women and armed conflict, and canvass a range of options for moving forward.