Taking the profound impacts of generalized system, new electronic media, and subculture into consideration, this paper holds that, presently China has entered an era of comprehensive social transition, along with the tendency that the era of the former unified or centralized literature (criticism) values will come to an end. For this reason, literary criticism will probably go into public space in a generalized form. The formation and bearing of public reason and social justice or moral law should become the conscious duty of current literary criticism. This article, whose textbook cases arise, in the main, out of Renmin wenxue put out from 1949 to 1976, states how the accredited commission to write on the given topics in the general sense has acquired the special status of political culture, and therefore assumed the specially-designated significance, function and value in the literary institution of modern China. And organizing manuscripts not only occupies a direct role in being involved in the creation of literature, but also makes a subtly different history of literature that gives a reflection of the politically motivating force for the authorized literary compositions.

In: Frontiers of Literary Studies in China

Although among the modern Chinese intellectuals endeavoring for the enlightenment of the people, Lu Xun is the most rebellious and resolute, his rebelliousness against tradition does not mean that he has nothing to do with tradition itself. On the contrary, in order to fight against a tradition, as a precondition he must have a deep understanding and cognition toward that tradition. The emergence of Lu Xun’s philosophical proposition, “everything is an intermediate object” (yiqie doushi zhongjianwu), occurs exactly in this way. With the evocation of this philosophical thought, the “intermediate object” (zhongjianwu), we see the inseparable indigenous tie predestined between Lu Xun and Chinese traditional culture, even while he fiercely fights it. Lu Xun’s innovative idea was produced in the process of deducing and developing the excellent and discarding the worthless in Chinese traditional culture, while absorbing and learning from the advanced thought of the West. Furthermore, his philosophy of the “intermediate object” forms the basis of his study and practice in translation. His purpose in translation is to bravely step out of the circle of inherent traditional culture, to come to the advanced “middle zone” where Chinese and Western cultures collide, and to probe into the new cultural factors from the West. In doing so he seeks to reform and improve Chinese traditional culture, and thus meet “the third era which China has never experienced before.” However, Lu Xun’s idea of “intermediate objects” is neither the traditional idea of the “golden mean” (zhongyong zhidao) nor that of “hypocrisy” (xiangyuan 乡愿). Unfortunately they are often mixed together into chaos by many people. So it is necessary to have further discussion about these terms and distinguish them separately.

In: Frontiers of Literary Studies in China

Based on the value-based leadership(VBL) theory and the preliminary findings obtained from an empirical study of Chinese business leaders, we propose a new model addressing the dynamic relationships among firm environment, VBL behaviors and leadership effectiveness; and test the model using data collected from 95 firms. Results show that VBL behaviors help improve leadership effectiveness when the company faces intense external competition, even though intensive competition is naturally negative to leadership effectiveness. Value-based leadership can help firms to survive through extremely tough circumstances.

In: Frontiers of Business Research in China
In: Multidisciplinary Research Perspectives in Education

Vessel members of Gmelina arborea Roxb. (Verbenaceae) have been reported so far to have exclusively simple perforations. In the present study based on SEM observations, however, various forms of multiple perforation plates have been found. These perforation plates always occurred as simple to multiple combination plates and the vessel members having them occurred only rarely, irregularly and solitarily in the wood. The morphology of the multiple perforation plates is illustrated by SEM micrographs.

In: IAWA Journal

The occurrence and morphology of perforated ray cells in eight Yunnan hardwoods were investigated using SEM, and the micromorphology of their perforation plates compared with those in the vessel member end walls. In most cases the perforation plates were dimorphic with the total area of the openings in the perforated ray cells sm aller than the perforation plates in the vessel member ends.

In: IAWA Journal
In: Motivation and Practice for the Classroom
On the Development of Rule of Law in China
This first English volume of The China Legal Development Yearbook features reports on and analyses of a wide range of topics vital to the development of China's legal system, including: criminal law, judicial administration, labor regulations, environmental law, public health law, and issues of corruption. The yearbook is edited by the Institute of Law at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, and also includes contributions from practitioners within the Chinese legal system.

Various fonns of perforation plates were found in Knema furfuracea (Hook. f. et Th.) Warb.: scalariform perforation plates, reticulate perforation plates, intermediates between scalariform and reticulate, and other multiperforate plates. These plates were paired in various combinations. Scalariform perforation plates and pairs of such plates were predominant and the remaining plate pairs were of lower occurrence and irregularly distributed in the xylem. Their morphology is illustrated by SEM micrographs.

In: IAWA Journal


This front matter section of the book The China Legal Development Yearbook, Volume 1: On the Development of Rule of Law in China contains the table of contents, a preface, acknowledgements, and a list of figures, tables and contributors. The Chinese system of law has had profound influence over Asia and, indeed, the worldwide legal system. With the establishment of the People's Republic of China, a new era of Chinese legal development began. Due to the Reform and Opening Up policies and the continuous gains of the Chinese economy, democratic ideals have influenced rule of law in China.

In: The China Legal Development Yearbook, Volume 1