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  • Author or Editor: K. Thongprajukaew x
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Abstract

Black soldier fly larvae (BSFL, Hermetia illucens) are an alternative source of protein whereas little research has yet been conducted to investigate the potential application of feed substrate waste (FSW) from larval production in aquaculture. The nutritive value and physicochemical properties of FSW from BSFL were here investigated in vitro. Ten-day-old first-instar larvae were cultivated on two feed substrates: laying hen feed (FS I) or a laying hen feed-rice bran blend (1:1 w/w, FS II). FSW samples were collected at day 4.5 (0.5FSW) and day 9 (1FSW) of larval rearing, and compared to the original feed substrate (0FSW). Crude protein increased depending on FS type, harvesting time (HT), and their interaction. Crude lipid, crude fiber, acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber, crude ash, nitrogen-free extract, and gross energy decreased ( P < 0.05 ). Analysis of the physicochemical properties of FSW by various techniques (scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning colorimetry, X-ray diffractometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) revealed qualitative and quantitative changes in FSW, driven by biological processes of BSFL. The digestibility of protein in FSW was determined by an in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) test using crude digestive enzyme extracts from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus). 1FSW from FS I showed significantly better availability of protein relative to 0.5FSW ( P < 0.05 ), while the IVPD of FSW from FS II was stable ( P > 0.05 ) or reduced ( P < 0.05 ). Findings from this study suggest FSW from BSFL cultivation could be a protein source in aquafeed.

In: Journal of Insects as Food and Feed

Pathogen contamination in fishmeal (FM) and the imbalanced amino acid profile in soya meal (SYM) are the disadvantages of the common protein sources in broiler diets. Therefore, FM, SYM and three species of cricket powder (Acheta domesticus: AD,Gryllus testaceus: GT andGryllus bimaculatus: GB) were screened based on thein vitro digestibility of dry matter (DMd), organic matter (OMd) and crude protein (CPd) to assess whether these insects could be a sustainable alternative protein source for broiler nutrition. Stomach mucosa, duodenal mucosa and pancreas were extracted from broilers to obtain crude enzyme extract (CTX) using two stages ofin vitro digestibility. The first stage was performed using gastric mucosa CTX, whereas CTX from the duodenal mucosa and pancreas were added for the second stage. SYM and GB had similar DMd, which were lower than FM, AD and GT (P<0.01). The highest OMd was observed in FM, followed by AD, GT, GB and SYM (P<0.01). A higher CPd was found in the crude protein calibration group (CPd-Cal), in which substrates were adjusted to obtain an equivalent crude protein level as the non-calibration group (CPd-Non). Interestingly, a strong correlation (r=0.99,P<0.01) was found between CPd-Cal and CPd-Non, with the highest CPd presented in FM, followed by SYM, AD, GB and GT (P<0.01). A significant negative correlation was found between the CPd from both groups (CPd-Cal and CPd-Non) and crude fibre (r=-0.96 and -0.95,P<0.05, respectively), whereas a positive correlation was observed for ash (r=0.91 and 0.93,P<0.05, respectively). AD has great potential as a protein source for broilers, greater than other cricket species, based on its DMd, OMd and CPd. However, the CPd of all insect species was lower than that of FM and SYM. Therefore, pre-treatment protocols should be performed to improve nutrient utilisation.

In: Journal of Insects as Food and Feed