In: Research on Chrysomelidae, Volume 2

The genus Timarcha seems unique among Chrysomelidae: Chrysomelinae by having plesiomorphic characters such as genitalia with a ring-like tegmen, covered with a setose parameral cap, together with apomorphic characters, including apterism and fused elytra. The distribution of this genus is also very peculiar: circum Mediterranean and northwestern American. Food selection also seems rather stict, comprising 8 families and 20 genera of plants. Two of the subgenera (Metallotimarcha and Americanotimarcha) share one plant family, the Ericaceae. The plant family Rubiaceae is also shared between three subgenera: Timarcha, Timarchostoma and Metallotimarcha. Reflex bleeding among diurnal species, aposematism, thanatosis, stomatic regurgitation are means of defense against predators, but not against parasites and commensals. A very archaic genus, probably originating in early Mesozoic, with around 100 taxa, and 50 subspecies. Mutations remain very common in the group and new species are possibly still emerging.

In: Terrestrial Arthropod Reviews
In: Research on Chrysomelidae, Volume 2
In: Multiple State Membership and Citizenship in the Era of Transnational Migration
Educational and Social Studies From Britain and the Indian Sub-Continent
This book reviews current controversies and dilemmas in the educational and social development of children and adolescents in Britain, India, Bangladesh and Nepal. Britain is contrasted with the Indian Sub-Continent because in theory at least, Britain has policies which should enable young people to be fully integrated within the educational system, whatever the degree of their original disability, while in the Indian Sub-Continent such educational opportunities are denied to many children because of problems of social structure, values, and poverty. The rights of the disabled to full inclusion are emphasized in two chapters by Sharon Rustemier. But a chapter by Dame Mary Warnock whose report to government designed the system for educational inclusion, shows that British policies for inclusion of the disabled are not working. The chapter by Bagley outlines the 'poverty of education' in Britain, which means that in a highly stratified society many children—both poor and disabled - are excluded from mainstream education by decisions based on school policies and neighbourhood disadvantage.
India in contrast is a culture in which inclusion of the disabled within educational systems is marred by economic poverty, as well as deliberate policies which deny Dalits (formerly known as 'Untouchables’) access to many kinds of educational opportunity. Nevertheless, there are pockets of good practice in India including the legal framework for action, which chapters by Jha and Jaya identify.
The history of educational initiatives for social and educational of the very poor of Bangladesh are reviewed in detail since these initiatives illustrate the work of a unique NGO (BRAC—the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee) which offers advancement for the poorest of the poor in a nation that is significantly poorer than India. Nepal too is also one of the poorest nations on earth, and we offer a detailed account of the trafficking of women and girls from Nepal into Indian brothels. These girls are permanently excluded from all social and educational networks, and their plight poses a major challenge for the movement for the social and educational inclusion of all children.
In: Challenges for Inclusion

Aggregations of conspecifics are ubiquitous in the biological world. In arthropods, such aggregations are generated and regulated through complex interactions of chemical and mechanical as well as abiotic and biotic factors. Aggregations are often functionally associated with facilitation of defense, thermomodulation, feeding, and reproduction, amongst others. Although the iconic aggregations of locusts, fireflies, and monarch butterflies come to mind, many other groups of arthropods also aggregate. Cycloalexy is a form of circular or quasicircular aggregation found in many animals. In terrestrial arthropods, cycloalexy appears to be a form of defensive aggregation although we cannot rule out other functions, particularly thermomodulation. In insects, cycloalexic-associated behaviors may include coordinated movements, such as the adoption of seemingly threatening postures, regurgitation of presumably toxic compounds, as well as biting movements. These behaviors appear to be associated with attempts to repel objects perceived to be threatening, such as potential predators or parasitoids. Cycloalexy has been reported in some adult Hymenoptera as well as immature insects. Nymphs of the orders Hemiptera (including Homoptera) as well as larvae of the orders Neuroptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, and, in a less circular fashion, the Lepidoptera, cycloalex. There are remarkable convergences in body form, life habit, and tendencies to defend themselves in the social larval Coleoptera, particularly chrysomelids, social larval Lepidoptera, and social larval Hymenoptera. In immature insects, the cycloalexing organisms can be arranged with either heads or abdominal apices juxtaposed peripherally and other conspecifics may fill in the center of the array. In the Chrysomelidae, the systematic focus of this review, species in the genera Lema, Lilioceris (Criocerinae), Agrosteomela, Chrysophtharta, Eugonycha, Gonioctena, Labidomera, Paropsis, Paropsisterna, Phratora, Phyllocharis, Plagiodera, Platyphora, Proseicela, Pterodunga (Chrysomelinae), Coelomera (Galerucinae), and Acromis, Aspidomorpha, Chelymorpha, Conchyloctenia, Ogdoecosta, Omaspides and Stolas (Cassidinae) are reported to cycloalex although cycloalexy in other taxa remains to be discovered. Other types of aggregations in insects include stigmergy, or the induction of additional labor, and epialexy, or the positioning of conspecifics organisms over the midvein or an elongated aspect of a leaf.

In: Terrestrial Arthropod Reviews