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In: Ocean Yearbook Online


This paper explores the theme of climate change and the oceans with a focus on the “other” side of climate change: ocean acidification. It is estimated that the acidity of the oceans has increased by about 30 percent since the beginning of the Industrial era and the rate of change is particularly significant in colder Polar waters. Until recently, ocean acidification has received little attention at the international level and the particular threat posed by carbon dioxide (as opposed to other greenhouse gases) to the oceans is not specifically acknowledged within the climate change regime. By contrast, the United Nations General Assembly and other fora, such as the 1992 Convention on Biological Diversity, are increasingly acknowledging the threat posed by ocean acidification to the health of our oceans. Sustainable Development Goal 14, among other objectives, calls upon states to “minimize and address the impacts of ocean acidification, including through enhanced scientific cooperation at all levels” (14.3). Nevertheless, specific action, including targets to limit ocean acidification, have yet to be established by any institution. This chapter examines the interaction between law of the sea institutions and the climate regime in order to assess progress to date and potential for future action on ocean acidification and conclude with a number of proposals for reform.

In: The Marine Environment and United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 14

This article provides a critical overview of the current international legal framework for the designation of area-based protection beyond national jurisdiction as well as selected examples of global and regional practice to date. It highlights some of the legal and other challenges in employing spatial management tools in a three dimensional and highly dynamic environment that lies beyond the jurisdiction of states or of any one overarching institution. The article concludes with a brief assessment of the various proposals that are currently under discussion as part of the negotiations for an instrument to support the conservation of biodiversity beyond national jurisdiction (the BBNJ negotiations) to create a global framework for the designation of MPAs and other area-based measures beyond the jurisdiction of states.

Open Access
In: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ocean Law and Policy
In: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ocean Law and Policy
In: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ocean Law and Policy
In: The Future of Ocean Governance and Capacity Development
In: Global Commons and the Law of the Sea
In: Regulation on Navigation of Foreign Vessels