The book brings together theoretical and research perspectives of scholars who are looking for the right relationship between religiousness and spirituality. This argument is to serve as the basis for the introduction of the author’s Meaning Making Beliefs- Spirituality-Religiousness (MM B-S-R) and Threefold Nature of Spirituality (TNS) models, created as part of the author’s many years of research achievements. These points of view, referring to the studies of various researchers and using her own investigations, specify the psychological elements as well as hypothetical and researched mechanisms of spirituality, noting that they require further exploration. The whole is a proposal for a new approach to the concept of the spiritual sphere as a multi-factorial, multi-level phenomenon, involved in cooperation with the cognitive system and personality, which is important in the process of searching for the meaning in life as its behavioral consequences resulting from the attitude towards the sacred/a-sacred and life.
This article describes a new theoretical, psychological model characterizing the concept, structure and functioning of spirituality in relation to the phenomenon of religiousness. The structural and processual approaches are indispensable when examining the spiritual sphere. The theory suggests that the psychological nature of spirituality can be considered from a threefold perspective: (1) as a cognitive scheme (the most constricted understanding), (2) as a dimension of personality (the broader understanding), (3) as an attitude towards life (the most extensive perspective). The Threefold Nature of Spirituality ( tns ) model binds these perspectives together and describes the phenomena and processes inherent in spiritual functioning: looking for the sacred or a-sacred, for the meaning of life, and for personal fulfilment. Theoretical and empirical examples are presented here in support of the tns, although further exploration is necessary.