The Roman destruction of Jerusalem in A.D. 70 was a watershed event in the religious, political, and social life of first-century Jews. This book explores the reaction to this event found in Jewish apocalypses and related literature preserved among the Pseudepigrapha (4 Ezra, 2 Baruch, 3 Baruch, 4 Baruch, Sibylline Oracles 4 and 5, and the Apocalypse of Abraham). While keeping the historical context of their composition in mind, the author analyzes the texts with a view to answering the following questions: What do these texts tell us about Jewish attitudes toward the Roman Empire? How did Jews understand the situation in post-70 Judea through the lens of Israel’s past, especially the Babylonian sack of Jerusalem in 587 B.C.?
Hatching factors with activity towards Globodera rostochiensis were isolated from the root leachates produced by 1500 potato plants grown in gravel. In total, nine hatching factors, each with molecular weight 530.5 Da, were isolated. The main differences in the daughter ions produced from different hatching factors after fragmentation by mass spectrometry occurred between 245 and 500 Da. The main hatching factor, HF E, was found in extremely low concentrations in the leachate (less than 2.9 × 105% of recovered organic material) and was active in vitro at less than 2.1 × 108 M. Separation of the different hatching factors during purification was found to decrease the percentage hatch achieved in vitro at optimum concentration. Aus Wurzelablaufwasser von 1500 in grobem Sand gehaltenen Kartoffelpflanzen wurden gegenüber Globodera rostochiensis wirksame Schlüpffaktoren isoliert. Insgesamt wurden neun Schlüpffaktoren isoliert, jeder mit einem Molekulargewicht von 530.5 Da. Die grössten Unterschiede bei den Tochterionen, die bei einer Zerlegung durch Massenspektrometrie erzielt wurden, traten zwischen 245 und 500 Da auf. Der Hauptschlüpffaktor, HF E, wurde in extrem niedrigen Konzentrationen (weniger als 2.9 × 105% des gewonnenen organischen Materials) im Ablaufwasser gefunden. Er war in vitro noch bei weniger als 2.1 × 108 M wirksam. Eine Trennung der verschiedenen Schlüpffaktoren im Laufe der Reinigung verminderte den prozentualen Schlupf in vitro bei optimaler Konzentration.
The exogenous application to three Globodera pallida-infested fields of tomato root leachate (TRL) containing hatching factors increased nematode hatch and in-egg mortality, particularly in a highly organic soil, and in a sandy but not in a clay soil. The most active concentrations of TRL (7.5-12.5 mg m-2) resulted in a reduction of between 69 and 79% in the number of viable eggs per cyst recovered 12 weeks after TRL application. At high hatching factor concentrations, supra-optimal inhibition of both hatch and in-egg mortality was observed; generally, hatch and in-egg mortality exhibited similar dosage-responses to TRL. A significant TRL dosage-hatch response was observed at 4 weeks after TRL application only in the sandy soil. In vitro, a G. pallida population exhibiting moderate hatch gave similar hatching and in-egg mortality responses as in the field experiment. The response of the PCN populations in vitro was found to be dependent on the physiological state of the egg/juvenile complex, with egg populations in diapause responding to the presence of natural and artificial hatching factors by exhibiting increased in-egg mortality but not increased hatch. The results are discussed in relation to novel G. pallida control measures.
In studies using three sibling F1 clones from each of five crosses between Solanum tuberosum and different wild tuberbearing Solanum species, root leachate hatching activity towards each of the two potato cyst nematode (PCN) species, Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida, segregated independently. Sephadex G-10 fractionation of the leachates of S. sucrense-hybrid clones revealed differences between clones in the hatching factor elution profiles for the two PCN species. Analysis of individual hatching factors indicated examples both of selectivity (both PCN species hatched in response to a particular hatching factor, but at different levels of hatching response) and of specificity (only one PCN species hatched in response to a particular hatching factor) of hatching factors. The hatching factor profiles of the S. sucrense-hybrids indicated segregation of hatching factors from the parents, but also detected novel factors unique to specific hybrid clones. Total hatching activity of the root leachate of the S. sucrense clones was positively correlated with the proportion of S. tuberosum-derived hatching factors.
The behaviour of stimulated second stage juveniles (J2) (i.e., hatched in root leachate from potato cv. Cara) and unstimulated J2 (spontaneously hatched in water) of Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida in response to fractionated and unfractionated potato root leachate (PRL) was investigated in attraction assays. In PRL, fractionated by combined ion-exchange-gel permeation chromatography on Sephadex G-10, three classes of semiochemicals with activity towards J2 were distinguished: i) chemoattractants; ii) chemostats, and iii) chemorepellents. The motility of PRL-hatched G. rostochiensis J2 in one fraction (12) at 10 days after their removal from the root leachate was significantly greater than that of water-hatched J2 apparently due to sensitisation of PRL-hatched J2. PRL-hatched J2 of G. pallida were attracted to different fractions than those of G. rostochiensis, whereas the water-hatched J2 from the two species were attracted to common fractions, indicating that sensitisation by exposure to PRL was species selective. The attraction of PRL-hatched PCN J2 to unfractionated PRL appeared to be dependent on the ratio of chemoattractant to chemorepellent semiochemicals in the leachate. For both species there was no detectable correlation between hatching activity and either attractiveness of root leachates from 12 potato genotypes or chemoattraction in PRL fractions, indicating that hatching factors were not active chemoattractants.
Soil core samples were taken from a commercial potato field before emergence of the potato crop, during crop development and after harvesting. Leachates from the cores were analysed in an in vitro hatching assay in the laboratory for activity towards the potato cyst nematodes (PCN), Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida. Hatching activity in the soil increased rapidly after plant emergence and peaked between 2 and 5 weeks after emergence; thereafter, at about the onset of flowering, hatching factor activity decreased markedly. The soil cores collected in the first 2 weeks after plant emergence contained significantly greater hatching activity towards G. pallida than G. rostochiensis, indicating that G. pallida-selective hatching factors were produced by the host crop earlier than G. rostochiensis-selective hatching factors. Soil cores collected from the potato ridge and the furrows at various depths and distances from the host plants differed in the distribution of G. pallida-selective and G. rostochiensis-selective hatching activity within the soil profile. Globodera pallida-selective hatching activity had greater vertical and horizontal mobility in the soil profile and elicited significantly greater hatching responses than G. rostochiensis beyond the region of the rhizosphere. Significant levels of hatching factor activity could be detected in the field 90 days after harvesting of the potato crop.
The fractionation of root leachates from tomato and potato on a Sephadex G-10 column revealed many similarities between the elution profiles of hatching activities towards potato cyst nematodes (PCN). When aliquots of either tomato or potato root leachate were mixed with different soil samples, hatching factors exhibiting G. pallida-selective hatching activity showed less affinity for the soil matrix than did those selective for G. rostochiensis . This was confirmed by the earlier elution of G. pallida-selective hatching factors from columns in which soil was used as the solid phase in low pressure liquid chromatography. The selectivity of the earliest-eluting hatching factors towards G. pallida, relative to G. rostochiensis, was found to increase significantly as the percentage soil organic matter content increased.
Successful mycorrhization of potato plants cv. Golden Wonder was achieved with three commercial preparations of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF): Vaminoc (mixed-isolate inoculum) and two of its components, Glomus intraradices and Glomus mosseae. Potato cyst nematode hatching assays were conducted on the potato root leachate (PRL) produced by inoculated and non-inoculated potato plants to examine the effect of AMF inoculation on the hatching response of the two PCN species, Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida. The overall hatch response of G. rostochiensis to the potato root leachate was greater than G. pallida. Root leachates from Vaminoc- and G. mosseae-inoculated plants were found to stimulate the hatch of G. pallida in the first 3 weeks after shoot emergence. Fractionation of root leachates with standardised carbon content by Sephadex G-10 chromatography revealed multiple AMF effects on hatching factor (HF) production. Root leachates from Vaminoc-inoculated plants contained markedly more G. pallida-active HF than all other treatments; by contrast, PRL from the three AMF treatments exhibited little variation in the quantity of G. rostochiensis-active HF produced. Several HF were PCN species-specific or species-selective, with those resolved from the G. intraradices and G. mosseae PRL profiles exhibiting an apparent preference for G. rostochiensis rather than G. pallida. Mycorrhization also significantly increased the root dry weight of plants.
The decline of Globodera rostochiensis (Woll.) populations in two fields was 57% during the first and 40.3% during the second year of crop rotation in the absence of a potato crop in Co. Cork, Ireland. The decline was found to be due to both spontaneous hatch and in-egg mortality. Spontaneous hatch accounted for between 75.8 and 80.2% of the decline experienced during rotation. In-egg mortality was found to be responsible for a reduction of approximately 10% in the total number of viable eggs in both fields, and was positively correlated with soil temperature in the field. The number of culturable bacteria and the composition of the bacterial microflora in the cysts was found to change with increasing soil temperatures. The increase in cellulase-positive isolates reflected the effect of temperature on egg degradation. Der Einfluss von Absterben im Ei und spontanem Schlupfen auf die Abnahme von Globodera rostochiensis im Feld im Laufe des Fruchtwechsels bei Abwesenheit des Wirtes Kartoffel - In Co. Cork, Irland, betrug die Abnahme der Populationen von Globodera rostochiensis (Woll.) in zwei Feldern in einer Fruchtfolge ohne Kartoffeln im ersten Jahr 57% und im zweiten Jahr 40,3%. Es wurde festgestellt, dass die Abnahme durch spontanes Schlupfen und durch Absterben im Ei verursacht wurde. Spontanes Schlupfen war fur 75,8 und 80,2% des wahrend des Fruchtwechsels beobachteten Ruckganges verantwortlich. Etwa 10% der Gesamtzahl infektionsfahiger Eier in den beiden Feldern gingen durch Absterben im Ei zugrunde. Dieser Ruckgang war positiv korreliert mit der Bodentemperatur im Feld. Der Anteil der kulturfahigen Bakterien und die Zusammensetzung der Bakterienflora in den Zysten nahmen mit steigenden Bodentemperaturen zu. Der Anstieg der zellulase-positiven Isolate spiegelte die Wirkung der Temperatur auf die Zersetzung der Eier wider.