Author: Ken Penner
This work consists of an introduction, transcription, translation, and commentary to the Greek translation of Isaiah in the Codex Sinaiticus. It comments on the Greek language in its context, especially on how the Greek language is stretched beyond its normal range of function. It addresses the peculiarities of Codex Sinaiticus, including its history, scribes, divisions, and orthography. In line with the aims of the Brill Septuagint Commentary Series, it mainly discusses not how the text was produced, but how it was read.
Tense, Aspect, and Modality in Qumran Hebrew Texts
Author: Ken M. Penner
In The Verbal System of the Dead Sea Scrolls Ken M. Penner determines whether Qumran Hebrew finite verbs are primarily temporal, aspectual, or modal.
Standard grammars claim Hebrew was aspect-prominent in the Bible, and tense-prominent in the Mishnah. But the semantic value of the verb forms in the intervening period in which the Dead Sea Scrolls were written has remained controversial.
Penner answers the question of Qumran Hebrew verb form semantics using an empirical method: a database calculating the correlation between each form and each function, establishing that the ancient author’s selection of verb form is determined not by aspect, but by tense or modality. Penner then applies these findings to controversial interpretations of three Qumran texts.
Author: Ken M. Penner

Abstract

A tree identified as the tree of life appears in 1 En. 24.3–25.6; 2 En. 8.3–7; 3 En. 5.1; 23.18; 48D.8. In (Ethiopic) 1 Enoch, this tree is not called the tree of life, but it is described in such sublime terms that scholars at least since Dillmann have identified it as such. The tree is located at the earthly throne of God. It is superlatively fragrant and inaccessible until the judgement day, after which the righteous and holy will enjoy it, and it will be planted toward the house of the Lord. The tree’s fragrance shall give the righteous long life on earth. In 2 (Slavonic) Enoch, the tree of life is indescribably and incomparably excellent and sweet-smelling. This cosmic tree is in the paradise in the third heaven (8.1), where the Lord rests. In 3 (Hebrew Apocalypse of) Enoch (5.1), the tree of life provides shelter for the cherub upon whom the Shekinah dwelled after the expulsion of Adam. The righteous and godly are to inherit the garden of Eden and the tree of life (23.18). The tree is one of the creations made by the secret of Metatron (48D.8).

In: The Tree of Life
In: The Verbal System of the Dead Sea Scrolls
In: The Verbal System of the Dead Sea Scrolls
In: The Verbal System of the Dead Sea Scrolls
In: The Verbal System of the Dead Sea Scrolls
In: The Verbal System of the Dead Sea Scrolls
In: The Verbal System of the Dead Sea Scrolls