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Abstract

This chapter covers essential findings that have emerged from the analysis of QS reputation rankings data. While ranking indicators and scores have been criticized, aligning them to the sociocultural identity of Asian Higher Education may be beneficial for development. The literature indicates the need to show the link between university rankings and national identity in Asia (Yonezawa, 2021). This chapter reflects on the purpose of higher education for Asian sustainable development and discusses the implication of using outcomes of ranking scores to determine reputation. The idea of reputation was reconsidered as an opportunity to negotiate collaboration with institutions that need capacity building, especially in research. The chapter concludes that rankings can drive policy on equity, equality, and sustainable development in Asia.

In: Rhetoric of the Asia Higher Education Rankings

Abstract

The university rankings methodology has been criticized for its subjective nature (Debrota, 2016; Huang, 2012). On the other hand, this chapter critiques the peer-review process involved in determining world-class universities in ranking systems. The focus is on the transparency and statistical explanation of instruments used in calculating Asian universities’ performance. The critique includes how ranking methodologies may mislead in determining the performance of higher education institutions. Moreover, the statistics used to estimate and forecast higher education performance were explained and analyzed in this case. This chapter offers a discussion on how ranking agencies use various statistics to determine the best 100 universities. Primarily, the chapter argues that ranking organizations need to validate the peer-review process and source of data to have a holistic view of higher education performance in Asia. The advantage of applying multiple data sources is that it allows fairness and could improve confidence in ranking results. Therefore, this chapter concludes that statistical designs that give an advantage to historically well-resourced universities should be avoided to improve confidence in global university rankings.

In: Rhetoric of the Asia Higher Education Rankings

Abstract

Comparing institutions that are so different for ranking purposes is problematic (see Daraio, Iazzolino, Laise, Coniglio, & Di Leo, 2021; Huang, 2011). This chapter theorizes the concept of comparison in ranking from totalitarian and pluralistic perspectives. The argument includes how modernization and the concept of nation-building have accelerated change processes in higher education in Asia. Literature on the sociology of higher education and ranking hegemony needs to be explicit about how Asia is likely to be drifting away from the pressure to become similar to higher education in the West (see Ordorika & Lloyd, 2015; Kim, 2011, 2012; Marginson & Ordorika, 2007). How would modernization recreate a new social order and national building in Asia without manifesting the identity of colonizers? This chapter considers the realities of ranking to make conclusions about the need for comparison, status, and reputation to understand the dynamics of power and politics in the Asian social context.

In: Rhetoric of the Asia Higher Education Rankings

Abstract

The narratives of globalization (Lee, 2015) and elitism of rankings (Lo & Hou, 2020) may have underscored the dominant power of Western knowledge in developing countries besides Asia. This chapter introduces different perspectives and analyzes the goals of reputation rankings in the Asian higher education systems. The analysis includes debriefing, rephrasing, and exposing how World Reputation Rankings systematically create tension in the governance of higher education. The chapter challenged the neoliberal approaches to university rankings and deconstructs the rhetoric that higher education should be ranked. Essentially, it explains how reputation rankings may be increasing social inequalities in research and internationalization in higher education.

In: Rhetoric of the Asia Higher Education Rankings

Abstract

Asia and its higher education policies need to recognize the implications of the metrics used for evaluating their institutions. This chapter analyzes QS data reports from five different years and argue how ranking results may contribute to systemic injustice regarding the power and politics of knowledge production in Asia. Ranking metrics and other categories were analyzed and discussed based on the availability of resources in developing Asian countries.

In: Rhetoric of the Asia Higher Education Rankings
In: Rhetoric of the Asia Higher Education Rankings
Chapter 2 A Review of the Philippine Quality Assurance System

Abstract

Over the past two decades, the Philippines has experienced extraordinary expansion in higher education. This expansion is evident in the increased number of higher education institutions (HEIs) both in the public and the private sector. However, the main area of growth has been in the private sector. The Philippines is one of four east Asian and Pacific countries (including Indonesia, Japan and Korea) that has more than 70% of its students enrolled in private HEIs (). The challenge facing the Philippines is that the growth experienced in the higher education sector has not been matched by adequate resources to deliver relevant quality (). Emerging markets require new skills, which higher education is expected to provide (). This chapter analyses the quality assurance system for the Philippine higher education institutions. It argues the case for tightening the existing accreditation framework of the higher education system in general, and private higher education in particular, in order to deliver the relevant skills necessary for the economic development and global competiveness of the Philippines.

In: Higher Education Policy in the Philippines and ASEAN Integration
Chapter 1 Philippine Higher Education in the Era of ASEAN Integration

Abstract

The world of globalisation in higher education is notably unequal. This chapter analyses the concept of globalisation from an ASEAN education perspective. The higher education integration agenda of ASEAN is examined in various ways, based on the dimensions, players and values. The issue of student mobility, degree recognition and quality assurance is examined in particular in relation to harmonisation of higher education systems in Southeast Asia. The major challenge has been the restriction on student visas or immigration policies, particularly in the Philippines and Vietnam. ‘Territorial’ constraints, whereby each country hopes to safeguard the uniqueness of their immigration policy, which in turn may ultimately constrain the implementation of integration efforts by ASEAN organization, was challenged.

In: Higher Education Policy in the Philippines and ASEAN Integration
Chapter 5 Total Quality Management (TQM) and the ASEAN Skills Development Agenda

Abstract

Over the last few decades, Total Quality Management (TQM) has received a considerable amount of attention in the organisational literature (, p. 764), where it has also been criticised for failing to address critical issues related to its success and implementation (, p. 674). Several organisations have benefited from what TQM has to offer and have subsequently improved their organisational performance, while many others have blamed TQM for poor results (, p. 497; , p. 216). This is mostly a problem of implementation anchored in issues related to leadership, change and planning in the implementation process (, p. 278). However, it is too early to conclude that TQM is obsolete or already dead (, p. 511). An important issue to bear in mind is the fact that many TQM research projects focus on manufacturing and/or the private sector (, pp. 577–578). Most studies emphasise the use of resources and/or cost reduction from a financial perspective as well as its effectiveness (, p. 497); less attention is paid to the processes or the implementation of TQM in higher education or to achieve development. The aspect of economic development through education has been emphasised by ASEAN where it is expected that its members will strengthen their higher education systems to improve their labour force participation rate through partnerships between industry and higher education. Of late, TQM studies have reflected a spread of its use to service organisations such as higher education (, p. 498). This chapter provides a critical evaluation of TQM application to improving the ASEAN integration agenda on skills development. The focus is on the Philippines and analysing whether the higher education activities align with key areas of TQM to achieve global competiveness in the labour markets.

In: Higher Education Policy in the Philippines and ASEAN Integration
Chapter 8 Implications of ASEAN Integration for the Philippine Higher Education Policies

Abstract

This concluding chapter provides a synthesis of all the chapters and in particular shows the implications of ASEAN integration policy for the Philippines higher education policies, quality assurance system and labour markets, as well as other important developments that have emerged from the different chapters. Notably, the conclusion includes an explanation of the findings, which highlight Philippine higher education policies regarding the issue of ASEAN integration. These issues could serve as a source of input to policy formulation, the development of programmes and decision-making to enhance the operationalisation of the ASEAN integration vision. ASEAN leaders, higher education researchers and policymakers may find the results discussed in this chapter useful.

In: Higher Education Policy in the Philippines and ASEAN Integration