This book offers an account of the role of gemination as a grammatical and lexical feature of Akkadian and a comprehensive treatment of the nominal and verbal categories that are characterized by it. It argues that gemination is basically an iconic phenomenon: its presence correlates with an extension in the meaning of the word vis-à-vis that of the corresponding word without gemination. This semantic extension is often realized as plurality; in other cases gemination has been subject to a process of grammaticalization, through which it has acquired a more abstract function, mostly that of underlining a high degree of salience or transitivity. Particular attention is paid to the D-stem, which is discussed exhaustively for the first time here. It is the most important and the most controversial of the verbal stems not only in Akkadian, but also in Semitic as a whole.
It is shown that the use of the D-stems of transitive verbs is mainly determined by various kinds of verbal plurality. With regard to the "factitive" D-sems of intransitive verbs a new and more nuanced definition is given of the concepts of factitivity as opposed to causativity; this allows a more satisfactory account of the relationship between the D-stem and the causative S-stem. The book includes detailed discussions of many individual verbs and passages from Akkadian texts. Lists of words with gemination and extensive indexes provide valuable
reference material.

Dutch Guiana

Demographics and Living Conditions and the Emergence of Dutch Creoles during the First One Hundred Years, 1580–1675

Silvia Kouwenberg

The first one hundred years of the Dutch presence on the “Wild Coast” of Guiana, beginning with exploratory voyages and establishment of trading networks, and culminating in the establishment of plantation societies in Berbice and Essequibo, forms the historical context for the emergence of the Dutch creole languages of Berbice and Essequibo. This article explores that historical backdrop, focusing on the early plantation colonies, their management, and the presence and roles of different linguistic groups: Amerindian, Dutch, African. Amerindians—both free and enslaved—formed a numerically dominant presence in the initial plantation phase; although they were soon to be outnumbered by enslaved Africans, they were present on and around the plantations throughout the history of these Dutch colonies. It is surprising, then, to note that Arawak-origin material in rather peripheral domains of the Berbice Dutch lexicon forms the sole evidence of an Amerindian presence during its formation. This contrasts sharply with the very central Eastern-Ijo derived contribution to basic lexicon and bound morphology. On the Dutch side, given the dominance of the southwestern provinces in the colonization of both Berbice and Essequibo, it is not surprising that Zeelandic Dutch characteristics can be recognized in many of the Dutch-derived forms. The marginal linguistic role played by Amerindians suggests that the dynamics of slavery determined the linguistic influence of the different groups historically present in the plantation society.

Juliana H.M. Kouwenberg

Abundance of adult copepods and late copepodid stages from the upper 50 m in the Golfe du Lion (N.W. Mediterranean) was studied by the author in 1986, 1987, and 1988 for each season. Altogether 87 stations at 22 fixed locations were sampled in the frame of the multidisciplinary French/Spanish programme Pélagolion/Leopel in the near-coastal region (≤ 25 m bottom depth), the Rhone dilution zone, the neritic region (≤ 200 m bottom depth), and the oceanic region (200–2000 m bottom depth). Abundance of other zooplanktonic groups was estimated and total zooplankton biomass was determined for the upper 50 m. Copepod abundance was highest during September 1986 (all regions) and July 1987 (neritic). Total biomass was highest during July 1987 and May/June 1988, caused by high abundance of many other zooplankters.