(1) An assessment of the structure of time perspective (TP) in a group of patients with neurotic and personality disorders (ICD-10: F4x, F60.x, F61) treated with group psychotherapy. (2) An analysis of the differences between the structure of TP in patients and the general population in order to expand the understanding of the relations between TP and mental health. Data were collected from 49 patients at the University Hospital Day Centre for the Treatment of Neurotic Disorders and Behavioural Syndromes. The measurement of TP was performed with the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. A licensed psychiatrist conducted the diagnosis of neurotic and personality disorders, with additional data obtained from the Symptom Checklist KO ‘O’ and the Neurotic Personality Questionnaire KON-2006. The statistical analysis revealed significant differences in the structure of TP between patients and the general population. Among patients, the intensity of the past experienced negatively was significantly higher, and subsequently, the degree of the past experienced positively was lower. Patients remain in the negative past and concentrate much more on the pain and the worrying memories. They give much less attention to what was and what is valuable and pleasant in their life. Results of this research reveal distinct features of the structure of TP in the studied group. Findings underline the clinical relevance of TP at various stages of therapy. Restoring a balanced time perspective could be regarded as a tenable goal for psychotherapy and perhaps an innovative indicator of the treatment’s effectiveness.