The bacterial decay of waterlogged archeological wood (WAW, hard pine spp.) taken from Daebudo shipwreck No. 2, which was buried in the intertidal zone in the mid-west coast (Yellow sea) of South Korea approximately 800 years ago, was investigated. The maximum moisture content of the outer parts (approx. 3 cm of depth) of WAW was approximately 4.2 times higher than that of undegraded reference pine wood. ATR-FTIR and solid-state 13C-NMR analysis indicated a relative increase of the lignin concentration in WAW caused by the degradation of cellulose and hemicelluloses across the board studied (31-cm-wide and 14.5-cm-thick board). Micromorphological studies also revealed that bacterial degradation was progressed to a depth of 15 cm (vertically 7.3 cm) from the surface, which is the innermost part of the board. Erosion bacteria (EB) were identified as the main degraders of WAW. Degradation by tunneling bacteria (TB) was occasionally detected. Decay resistance to bacterial attacks in WAW varied between cell types and between cell wall regions. Axial tracheids showed less resistance than ray tracheids, ray parenchyma cells, and axial intercellular canal cells, including strand tracheids, subsidiary parenchyma cells, and epithelial cells. Decay resistance was higher in ray tracheids and strand tracheids than in ray parenchyma cells and subsidiary parenchyma-/epithelial cells, respectively. Bordered- and cross-field pit membranes and the initial pit borders showed higher decay resistance than the tracheid cell walls. Overall, the S2 layer of the axial tracheids showed the weakest resistance to bacterial attacks.
Lignin in the middle lamella of the secondary xylem of angiosperms appears to be inhomogeneously distributed, based on studies where the focus is on a close examinantion of the middle lamella region of fibre cell walls by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This is in contrast to the secondary xylem of gymnosperms which often display a more uniform distribution of lignin in the middle lamella of secondary xylem elements. The aim of our study was to undertake TEM examination of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), an angiosperm plant mainly cultivated for its high quality secondary phloem fibres, to investigate lignin distribution in the middle lamella of secondary vascular tissues, including secondary phloem fibres. The middle lamella displayed considerable heterogeneity in the distribution of lignin in all lignified secondary vascular tissues, including xylem and phloem fibres, vessels and axial xylem parenchyma cells. The results provided evidence of lignin inhomogeneity in the secondary phloem fibres as well as in other lignified elements of kenaf vascular tissues, extending previous observations which were confined only to fibre cells.
Studies on the compression wood in tropical gymnosperms are uncommon due to their limited distribution and over-exploitation. Microscopic examination of the heartwood of two tropical gymnosperms, Agathis borneensis (local name: bindang, damar minyak) and Dacrydium elatum (local name: sempilor) growing on higher elevations in Sarawak, Malaysia showed the occurrence of mild compression wood. Intercellular spaces were present in the compression wood of A. borneensis, but not in D. elatum. Rounded shapes of tracheids, typical of severe compression wood, were not observed in any of the samples examined. In D. elatum helical cavities were present, which corresponded in location to cell wall checks seen in cross-sectional views. The S1 layer was relatively thick in both wood species but a distinct S3 layer was observable only in the mild compression wood of D. elatum. Although the main feature of the mild compression wood tracheids of both wood species was greater lignification of the outer S2 region, autofluorescence and KMnO4 staining showed the fluorescence and staining intensity in the corner middle lamella in some cases to be much stronger than that in the outer part of S2 layer.
Seven species belonging to Suborder Hoplolaimina are characterised using integrative taxonomy, considering both morphological and molecular phylogenetic analyses of the 28S-rRNA, ITS-rRNA and COI gene sequences. It is evident that, as more populations of Pratylenchus zeae are continuously characterised, the species continues to display an ever-increasing intraspecific genetic variation within the 28S-rRNA and ITS-rRNA genes. However, the COI gene sequences exhibit minimum intraspecific variation and thus might be the most powerful DNA barcoding marker for the precise identification of P. zeae and should therefore be recommended as a complementary technique in the identification process of the species. Pratylenchus zeae, Meloidogyne graminicola and Heterodera pratensis are characterised herein for the first time in Korea, while the presence in Korea of P. penetrans, P. scribneri, H. avenae, and M. marylandi, is molecularly confirmed.