This chapter will examine pre-Cold War British spy fictions (exemplified by the work of the Scottish novelist John Buchan) in order to capture a more knowing encounter with various Others (and Imperial ‘Selves’) in Thomas Pynchon’s Gravity’s Rainbow (1973). The American Pynchon identifies an early interest in these British genre fictions (especially Buchan’s) in the introduction to his short story collection Slow Learner (1985) and the troubling encounters of one Empire’s popular genres becomes a way to articulate the rise of the US, as another Empire, in Gravity’s Rainbow. This postcolonial interrogation (still unusual in US fiction, or other cultural forms, in the seventies) also allows considerations of the ideology of Whiteness as a force of terror across Pynchon’s text. Pynchon’s work takes the encounter with the Other and identifies it as an encounter with what is feared and unacceptable in the Imperial Self. Whiteness, in this sense, is the ultimate way to disguise the power and violence of control. Pynchon’s readings of spy fiction reflect all his texts’ struggle to represent the construction of Whiteness and the peoples, groups and ideas its ideology ignores.
The purpose of this article is to critically analyse the methodology and impact of the investment chapter the European Union (EU) proposed for the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP). It focusses on the innovations of an appellate body and the incorporation of a ‘right to regulate’-provision, as well as general exceptions that are very similar to Article XX of the GATT. In light of the development that these features have been replicated in the CETA and the EU-Vietnam FTA, it questions why the EU is changing the traditional form of investor-State arbitration in a preferential trade and investment agreement and whether the EU’s model is viable, and formulated on a robust design that will stand the test of time.
Forest tree composition can affect the distribution and abundance of terrestrial salamanders. We examined the effect of leaf litter type (deciduous or coniferous) and soil type (deciduous and coniferous) on red-backed salamander (Plethodon cinereus) substrate choice using a series of laboratory experiments. Salamanders preferred deciduous leaves over coniferous pine needles and the deciduous soil/deciduous leaf litter combination over all others. In addition, our results suggest that leaf litter type may be more important than soil type in influencing salamander substrate preference in our study. Our results suggest that behavioural avoidance may partially explain differences in P. cinereus abundances in deciduous and coniferous forest habitats.