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Larissa van den Herik

This book offers a thorough analysis of the establishment and the Statute of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda. Furthermore, it gives insight into how the Rwanda Tribunal has operated in practice during its first ten years and it examines the case law on the three major international crimes: genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes. The author provides a balanced judgement of the contribution of the Rwanda Tribunal towards the development of international criminal law, emphasizing its strong points, in particular the case law on genocide, but also exposing its weaknesses in terms of legal reasoning. The author also demonstrates the inherent limits of the Rwanda Tribunal due to the political and social situation within Rwanda and due to its own Statute.
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Larissa van den Herik

Abstract

Reports of the NGO Global Witness in which the implication of the Dutchman Kouwenhoven in the civil war in Liberia was exposed served as the lead for the Dutch Prosecution Office to start a criminal case against this national. In June 2006, the Dutch businessman Guus Kouwenhoven was convicted in first instance for the violation of an arms embargo, but acquitted of the count on war crimes. On appeal, Kouwenhoven was fully acquitted of all charges. In its judgment quashing the prior conviction, the Dutch Court of Appeal heavily criticized the Public Prosecutor and observed that the case against Kouwenhoven was built on quicksand. Even though not based on universal jurisdiction, the case does illustrate the inherent complexities of exercising extraterritorial criminal jurisdiction. A remarkable aspect of the case is that the Court of Appeal evaluated the evidence presented in a fundamentally different way than the Court of First Instance had done. This might be related to the inherent difficulties of assessing “foreign evidence”. In this note, it is argued that when adjudicating such foreign cases, national judges being unfamiliar with the historical and cultural setting in which the alleged crimes took place, should call upon experts on the region to assist in the evaluation of the evidence. In terms of substance, the case leads to interesting questions as to how charges of illegal arms trade do and should relate to charges of complicity in war crimes.

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Edited by Larissa van den Herik and Carsten Stahn

This volume is the first in a new series of Studies on the Frontiers of International Law. The term ‘frontier’ is traditionally associated with proximity to a boundary or a demarcation line. But it is also a connecting point, i.e., a passage or channel between spaces that are usually considered as separate entities. The Series aims to explore the visible and imaginary boundaries of scholarship in International Law. It is designed to test the existing table of contents, vocabulary and limits of ‘Public International Law’, to investigate lines and linkages between ‘centre’ and ‘periphery’, and to re-map or re-think some of its conceptual boundaries.

The current volume is written in this spirit. It deals with the tension between unity and diversification which has gained a central place in the debate under the label of ‘fragmentation’. It explores the meaning, articulation and risks of this phenomenon in a specific area: International Criminal Justice. It brings together established and fresh voices who analyse different sites and contestations of this concept, as well as its context and specific manifestations in the interpretation and application of International Criminal Law. The volume thereby connects discourse on ‘fragmentation’ with broader inquiry on the merits and discontents of legal pluralism in ‘Public International Law’.
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Larissa van den Herik and Carsten Stahn

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Series:

Larissa van den Herik and Carsten Stahn