Despite its disappearance from the diagnostic manuals and the consulting room, hysteria has had a recent cultural resurgence as films, books, and papers update its meaning for our society, marked by dissent, struggle and uncertainty. Its migration into new, more medically manageable conditions (including dissociation, conversion, or post-traumatic stress disorder) highlights the common elements to all forms of hysteria: a struggle with gender, a manifestation of symptoms in the body, and the asking of a question - Che vuoi, or, ‘What do you want from me?’ We put forward the idea that hysteria is a process, a state of mind, rather than a condition, and that its relationship to femininity and the body - following Juliet Mitchell’s argument - is the reason it has disappeared from the medical vocabulary. Yet, this state captures something inherently human, ambivalent and conflicted. It names, defines and understands something elusive. Our chapter will question hysteria as madness in relation to an epistemology that, according to Christopher Bollas, is depraved. Even though it seems to be a state impairing the mind’s judgment as the body takes over, the psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan placed the production of knowledge within the hysteric in his theory of the Four Discourses. The hysteric knows what the master, the university and the analyst do not. We will argue that hysteria as madness relates to the visionary aspect of the state, to the fact that hysterics articulate and know in the body, that which does not want to be known. In order to safeguard a symbolic universe, hysterics are labeled mad, possessed, delusional, or simply as acting out their symptoms. The outcome of this struggle is visual and performative, so we will draw on visual examples - from our production, and that of others. These implicate the body and the gaze, therefore, a witness, creating a space for discourse.
A number of the studies on international intergovernmental organizations (IO s) rule out that they are autonomous or capable of self-directing their processes of change. The case of the International Commission against Impunity in Guatemala (CICIG) makes it possible to see precisely to what degree an IO is autonomous. Through documentary analysis and interviews with the leadership of CICIG, this article shows that the organization adjusted and reinterpreted its mandate as a result of a process of internal and autonomous decisions. This evidence contributes to the debate about the IO s as self-directed actors.
New information on deep-water Cirripedia obtained during project surveys and experimental cruises in the Canary Islands region (NE Atlantic) have been analysed and collated with literature data. This annotated checklist includes 32 species of the Cirripedia Thoracica; four of them are recorded for the first time from the Canaries: Poecilasma aurantia, Poecilasma crassa, Heteralepas microstoma and Aurivillialepas falcata. Information on the barnacles’ animal hosts in the area is also updated and compiled for the first time.
Crustacean vitellogenesis is a process that involves Vitellin, produced via endoproteolysis of its precursor, which is designated as Vitellogenin (Vtg). The Vtg gene, mRNA and protein regulation involve several environmental factors and physiological processes, including gonadal maturation and moult stages, among others. Once the Vtg gene, mRNAs and protein are obtained, it is possible to establish the relationship between the elements that participate in their regulation, which could either be species-specific, or tissue-specific. This work is a systematic analysis that compares the similarities and differences of Vtg genes, mRNA and Vtg between the crustacean species reported in databases with respect to that obtained from the transcriptome of Callinectes arcuatus, C. toxotes, Penaeus stylirostris and P. vannamei obtained with MiSeq sequencing technology from Illumina. Those analyses confirm that the Vtg obtained from selected species will serve to understand the process of vitellogenesis in crustaceans that is important for fisheries and aquaculture.
In tropical countries, a large number of finfish species and invertebrates are captured as by-catch, including several species of crustaceans, due to the low selectivity of the fishing methods. By-catch presents and optimal opportunity to study populations of crustaceans. Here, the goal was to determine the community structure, specifically through the size structure, as well as the average sizes at first maturity of crustacean species present in the shrimp by-catch caught aboard a fishing vessel operating in the Mexican Pacific, from Sinaloa to Guerrero, Mexico. From the 18 crustaceans found in this study, the crabs Euphylax robustus and Achelous asper were the dominant species, whereas four species were considered casual (i.e., not frequent). Interestingly, more than 40% of the organisms analysed were in the juvenile stage, and 19% were ovigerous females. The results demonstrate the negative impact of the low selectivity of shrimp trawls on the communities of species of Crustacea.