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To better understand the importance of body size in hermaphroditic mating, we studied the mating behaviour of the pond snail Radix auricularia. This simultaneous hermaphrodite exhibits a positive correlation between body size and egg production and provides weak evidence for size-assortative mating. In addition to this mating pattern, the partner performing the male role was significantly smaller than the mounted partner, performing the female role. In this study, two laboratory experiments were done to test whether body size has (1) an effect on mate choice of the sperm donor, and (2) poses mechanical constraints. These snails did not display physical limitation in mating with a much larger or smaller partner. In the mate choice experiment, we found no evidence for significant preferences for large partners. Therefore, mate choice of sperm donor and mechanical constraints are not likely to contribute to the formation of size-assortatively mating pairs in this species, which contributes to understanding about how these processes work in hermaphrodites.

In: Animal Biology
The Violent Consequences of Ideological Warfare in the 20th Century
From a global perspective, the historical relationship between war and communism throughout the 20th century is discussed in this book.
Communist theory was supposed to lead to a classless society that would thereby overcome nationalism, imperialism, violence, and eventually war itself. Regardless of the theoretical assumption that a communist utopia would end wars forever, communism very often related to war, not only in a theoretical sense, but also in the actual historical process. How communist theorists interpreted war, argued for or against it and tried to sanction the use of violence in the name of a communist utopia are questions for this anthology about an “unnatural interrelationship”. At the same time, the contributions of this volume take a closer look at violent responses against communism during the 20th century.