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In: Ibn Ḥazm of Cordoba
Author: Leigh Chipman


This paper examines the involvement of the angels in the creation of Adam as an example of mythopoetic activity in Islam. This involvement takes the form of the angels' reaction to Adam's creation and to Adam's superior knowledge. These themes also developed within an anti-Gnostic polemic; the figure of the First Man is important for Gnosticism no less than for Judaism or Islam, yet their visions of this figure differed greatly. The relations between Adam and the angels is an important refraction of the differences between these religions. Comparison of tales from three Islamic genres—tafsīr, ta'rīh and qisas al-anbiyā'—with rabbinical legends shows that, contrary to expectations, Islamic material provides a more mythic conception of these themes than does Jewish midrash.

In: Arabica
Author: Leigh Chipman

This article will discuss aspects of pharmacy in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries CE, when the central Islamic lands–which also form a central part of the Silk Road between China and Europe-were dominated by the Mamlūk Empire in Egypt and Syria, and the Mongol Īl–khāns in Iran. Exchanges of practical and theoretical knowledge occurred across the hostile frontier, but it remains ro be seen to what extent this affected the practice of community pharmacists in the Islamic world, let alone the theory used by docrors learned in the Arabic pharmacological tradition. As I have only very recently begun to study the Mongol side of things in greater depth, this article will be weighted towards the Mamluks, and I will point out areas that require further research before any definite conclusion can be reached. I will begin by discussing the state of pharmacy in Mamluk Egypt, continue to say a few words about the developments in pharmacology caused by the establishment of the Mongol Empire, and finally, discuss the status of pharmacists in hospitals under the Mongols and Mamlūks.

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In: Asian Medicine
In: Brill's Companion to the Reception of Galen
Author: Leigh Chipman
This is the first detailed analysis of an immensely popular 13th c. Arabic guide for pharmacists, from a time in which Jewish physicians and pharmacists worked alongside Muslim and Christian practioners. Minhāj al-dukkān ("How to manage a pharmacy"), by Abū ʾl-Munā al-Kūhīn al-ʿAṭṭār (fl. 1260) is the first attempt to explore the full spectrum of pharmacy in the medieval Arabic world: identification of the materia medica and methods of preparation; pharmacy's place within the sciences and particularly its relationship with medicine; the social position of the pharmacist and his role in the marketplace and the hospital; the economics of pharmacy; legal aspects of pharmacy; and the image of the pharmacist in literature and drama. The result is a full and nuanced picture of a section of society usually invisible.