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Author: Chien-Hui Li

Abstract

This paper offers an historical perspective to the discussion of the relationship between Christianity and nonhuman-human animal relationships by examining the animal protection movement in English society as it first took root in the nineteenth century. The paper argues that the Christian beliefs of many in the movement, especially the evangelical outlook of their faith, in a considerable way affected the character as well as the aims and scope of the emergent British animal welfare movement - although the church authorities did not take an active part in the discussion and betterment of the conditions of animals. An explicitly Christian discourse, important in creating and sustaining the important philanthropic tradition in Britain, mobilized the movement. The paper also traces the gradual decrease of the centrality of the movement's Christian elements later in the century when evolutionary ideas as well as other developments in society shed alternative light on the relationship between human and nonhuman animals and brought about different trends in the movement. This paper sees Christianity not as a static and defining source of influence but as a rich tradition containing diverse elements that people drew upon and used to create meanings for them. The paper implicitly suggests that both a religion's doctrines in theory and the outcome of a complex interaction with the changing society in which the religion is practiced determine its potential to influence animal-human relationships.

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In: Society & Animals
Author: Chien-hui Li

Abstract

This paper offers an historical perspective to the discussion of the relationship between Christianity and nonhuman-human animal relationships by examining the animal protection movement in English society as it first took root in the nineteenth century. The paper argues that the Christian beliefs of many in the movement, especially the evangelical outlook of their faith, in a considerable way affected the character as well as the aims and scope of the emergent British animal welfare movement - although the church authorities did not take an active part in the discussion and betterment of the conditions of animals. An explicitly Christian discourse, important in creating and sustaining the important philanthropic tradition in Britain, mobilized the movement. The paper also traces the gradual decrease of the centrality of the movement's Christian elements later in the century when evolutionary ideas as well as other developments in society shed ahternative light on the relationship between human and nonhuman animals and brought about different trends in the movement. This paper sees Christianity not as a static and defining source of influence but as a rich tradition containing diverse elements that people drew upon and used to create meanings for them. The paper implicitly suggests that both a religion's doctrines in theory and the outcome of a complex interaction with the changing society in which the religion is practiced determine its potential to influence animal-human relationships.

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In: Society & Animals
Authors: Li Hui and Wang Dan

Many counties in Western China have launched 15-year ‘free’ education policies since 2010 to provide the 3-year free early childhood education (ece). To understand the affordability, accessibility, accountability, and sustainability of these policies, we sampled the four counties in Shanxi and Shaanxi province that were the first cohort to implement free ece policies: Yulin, Ningshan, Zuoyun, and Changzhi. A multiple-case online research was conducted and the results indicated that: (1) the ‘free’ education policies are neither ‘all kids free’ nor ‘all fees free’, thus could only partially solve the problem of affordability; (2) the policies did not solve the problems related to school place allocation, which in turn, tended to exacerbate the issue of accessibility and inequality in educational opportunities; (3) no monitoring and quality assurance mechanisms were launched to improve the accountability of kindergartens; and (4) the policies are unlikely to be sustainable as the ece budget entirely relies on the fiscal investment at the county level. Implications of these findings were discussed and some suggestions were made.

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In: International Journal of Chinese Education
Authors: Xing Hui and Li Shiwei

Abstract

Chinas vocational education program has adopted the same standards as technical and vocational education programs in other countries, but created two new systems with Chinese characteristics. The first, a vocational education system, is comprised of three categories of schools: secondary school, including technical schools, vocational high schools, and technical schools for adults; vocational higher education institutions, including independent colleges, non-governmental schools, and five- year training colleges; and diversified vocational training schools. The second system is a social vocational training system. Social training and vocational accreditation institutions are important supplements to Chinas education and training system. Model vocational education programs have distinct local characteristics, due to the extensive regional disparities in socio-economic development. Vocational education in China faces many challenges resulting from a lack of public awareness, education facilities, modest school scale, low teaching quality, unsupportive environment, and need for more training centers.

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In: The China Educational Development Yearbook, Volume 1
Authors: Yixuan Wang, Li Zong, and Hui Li

Abstract

The history of Chinese immigration to Canada can be traced back to more than 150 years. Despite different historical contexts, early Chinese immigrants before/during World War II and recent Chinese immigrants after World War II, especially those since 1960s, have both encountered barriers in the process of social integration in the host country. Using the social exclusion theory, this paper challenges the traditional one-way approach to social integration — which focuses on the immigrants’ personal efforts in adapting to a new social environment — and instead, advocates a two-way approach to analyze Chinese immigrants’ social integration into the host country in the early and more recent times. By making comparisons between them in different social contexts, it is found that the difficulties in social integration are attributable to both the individual and structural barriers rather than personal insufficiency alone. Moreover, despite different manifestations at different times, the nature of and reasons for social exclusion remain the same. The underlying reason for domination-subordination relationship between the excluder and the excluded in different times is attributable to the self interests of the excluders.

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In: Journal of Chinese Overseas

Patients with cancer often face emotional conflicts, which impact on the quality of life. A technique named Mandala of Emotions (ME), developed by one of us (lhl) and with roots in Traditional Chinese Medicine, has been used to promote self-understanding and coping with emotions, with promising results. We report an experience with add-on Mandala of Emotions therapy in a 44-year-old woman diagnosed with breast neuroendocrine carcinoma. This is a single case study using description and report from the patient during her treatment for breast cancer. This experience encompasses a follow-up of two years. Mandala of Emotions applies five coloured (green, red, yellow, white and black) stones the size of a walnut, which are placed around the patient or on the patient’s body while laid down in supine. The session lasts around 15 minutes. The female patient initiated ME as a way to come to terms with her emotions and internal conflicts. She felt that ME has helped her understand her feelings and find a way to cope with them, particularly soon after chemotherapy when she experienced an overflow of emotions combined with physical frailty and mental vulnerability. During her treatment, she developed a drop in platelet level as a side effect of chemotherapy, which led to hospital admission and transfusion. Concomitantly, she started to feel panic and her physician felt that medication for panic attack was not an option due to the circumstances. She self-discharged from the hospital because of panic attack. At home, Dr. Ling applied ME to countermeasure the feeling of fear. The panic attack subsided in a week, and a couple of days later she regained her physical strength. In parallel, her platelet levels increased too. This single case illustrates the use of ME as add-on therapy for self-healing and resolution of internal conflicts.

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In: The Patient-Doctor Dynamics