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  • Author or Editor: Lijun Zhao x
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Historically, international regimes regulating maritime transport have aimed to develop uniform rules. However, these rules are relatively static and have been implemented differently based on different national understandings in a de-centralised, State-based manner. This article argues that greater global uniformity in maritime transport rules could be achieved through the framework of the World Trade Organization (‘wto’). The wto could update these rules dynamically, and could also enforce them. A wto-based negotiating forum could generate substantive, uniform seaborne cargo rules in two ways. Through a selective referral approach, it could incorporate the existing rules — including the un-administered rules — within the wto framework. It could also develop new uniform rules. The wto also provides international communities with a quasi-judicial procedure — the wto dispute settlement mechanism (‘dsm’) — which could also be used to protect and promote the global uniformity of seaborne cargo rules. Such an approach could further reduce divergent interpretations of uniform transport rules by providing a centralised system for the implementation of those rules.

In: International Organizations Law Review


Dual-task performance depends on both modalities (e.g., vision, audition, haptics) and task types (spatial or object-based), and the order by which different task types are organized. Previous studies on haptic and especially auditory–haptic attentional blink (AB) are scarce, and the effect of task types and their order have not been fully explored. In this study, 96 participants, divided into four groups of task type combinations, identified auditory or haptic Target 1 (T1) and haptic Target 2 (T2) in rapid series of sounds and forces. We observed a haptic AB (i.e., the accuracy of identifying T2 increased with increasing stimulus onset asynchrony between T1 and T2) in spatial, object-based, and object–spatial tasks, but not in spatial–object task. Changing the modality of an object-based T1 from haptics to audition eliminated the AB, but similar haptic-to-auditory change of the modality of a spatial T1 had no effect on the AB (if it exists). Our findings fill a gap in the literature regarding the auditory–haptic AB, and substantiate the importance of modalities, task types and their order, and the interaction between them. These findings were explained by how the cerebral cortex is organized for processing spatial and object-based information in different modalities.

In: Multisensory Research