The place name Jiangjun Yu 將軍谷 was transliterated as tsang kun yog in Tibetan. Hence, 谷 must have been pronounced as jwok in Middle Chinese and *luk in Old Chinese. Written as 峪 during the Song, 谷 (with a fanqie reading of 余蜀) is still preserved in place names in present day north China. Pre-Qin 谷 *luk was a cognate of lung-pa in Tibetan, both meaning ‘valley’. Characters such as 俗欲裕, etc, with 谷 as the phonetic indicator, further lend evidence to this ancient pronunciation.
Tridacna gigas, the world’s largest living bivalve, could once be found on shallow coral reefs across the Indo-Pacific Region where its presence can be traced back to around 10 million years. However, following several local extinctions throughout its geographic range, its SCS population appears to have also been the subject of unprecedented overharvesting. This article discusses the obligations of littoral States of the SCS to protect and preserve this threatened resource and its habitat, to cooperate and consult with each other to that effect and act with due diligence. Given these obligations and the risk of irreversible harm and species’ extinction in the SCS, it proposes that littoral States should proceed to list the SCS population of T. gigas in the CITES Appendix I, impose an immediate ban on further harvesting pending (re-)assessment of the population, and adopt a management plan to ensure its survival and sustainable use.