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  • Author or Editor: Lin Xiao x
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Community construction is an important part of social construction, while community governance is a basic segment of the national governance system. Accelerated urbanization has presented new challenges and opportunities for community development in both urban and rural areas. In community construction and governance, residents’ self-governance continues to expand and the role of non-governmental organizations becomes increasingly prominent. A pattern in which multiple parties jointly participate in community governance and services is preliminarily taking shape. The improvement of community self-governance and the development of grassroots democracy rely on further rationalizing the relationship between the government and the society on the basis of rule of law, transforming government functions, and stimulating social vitality.

In: Chinese Research Perspectives on Society, Volume 4
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Abstract

Communities epitomize a society. Communities have shown obvious differentiation along with accelerated marketization and urbanization during the stage of social transformation. Different types of urban communities present different characteristics in material space, property rights relationships, population structure, organizational mode, residents’ class and status, neighborhood relationships, community, social participation and other dimensions; these differences are mainly caused by class differentiation and social mobility, and they are also affected by such traditional institutional factors as units and urban and rural registered permanent residence. Community differentiation is closely related to class differentiation, but the former is not equal to the latter. The diverse differences among different types of urban communities constitute the objective foundation for community development and community governance. Therefore, community governance needs to be exercised in light of the type of community.

In: Chinese Research Perspectives on Society, Volume 5

For over a decade, DNA barcoding has proven an effective modern tool in taxonomy, evolutionary biology and biodiversity research. Many new species have been discovered and described with DNA barcodes as part of their diagnostic features. Using DNA barcodes, we uncovered a number of potential species within the Tanytarsus curticornis and Tanytarsus heusdensis species complexes (Diptera: Chironomidae) and detected morphological differences a posteriori that support the description of new species. Unusually large intraspecific divergence in COI p-distance (up to 10%) was observed for two species complexes. In total, eight species new to science are described and figured: T. adustus sp. n., T. heberti sp. n., T. madeiraensis sp. n., T. pseudoheusdensis sp. n., T. songi sp. n., T. thomasi sp. n., T. tongmuensis sp. n. and T. wangi sp. n.. Tanytarsus reei and T. tamaoctavus are redescribed, and T. tusimatneous is listed as a new junior synonym of T. tamaduodecimus. The diagnostic characters of the remaining species of the complexes are discussed. Keys to males and pupae are given.

Open Access
In: Insect Systematics & Evolution

Abstract

The difference in body size and/or shape between males and females, called sexual size dimorphism, is widely accepted as the evolutionary consequence of the difference between reproductive roles. To study the mating pattern, female reproduction and sexual size dimorphism in a population of Microhyla fissipes, amplexus pairs were collected, and the snout-vent length of males and females, female reproductive traits and fertilization rate were measured. If the body size of amplexed females is larger than that of amplectant males, this is referred to as a female-larger pair, a phenomenon that was often observed for M. fissipes in this study. Interestingly, snout-vent length of males in male-larger pairs was greater than that in female-larger pairs, however the post-spawning body mass, clutch size, egg dry mass and clutch dry mass did not differ between both types of pairs. Snout-vent length of males was positively related to that of females in each amplexus pair. After accounting for the snout-vent lengths of females, we showed that snout-vent lengths of males in male-larger pairs were greater than those of females in female-larger pairs. The snout-vent length ratio of males and females was not related to fertilization rate in each amplexus pair. The mean fertilization rate was not different between both amplexus pairs. These results suggest that (1) M. fissipes displays female-biased sexual size dimorphism and has two amplexus types with size-assortative mating; (2) the snout-vent length ratio of males and females in each amplexus type was consistent with the inverse of Rensch’s rule, and was driven by the combined effect of sexual selection and fecundity selection; (3) females with a larger body size were preferred by males due to their higher fecundity, while the body size of males was not important for fertilization success.

In: Animal Biology

ABSTRACT

The relationship between the cell wall ultrastructure of waterlogged wooden archeological artifacts and the state of water bound to cell walls and free in voids is fundamental to develop consolidating and drying technologies. Herein, a lacquer-wooden ware and a boat-coffin dating 4th century BC were selected as representative artifacts to study. Wood anatomy results indicated that they belonged to Idesia sp. and Machilus sp., respectively. They exhibited a typical spongy texture, as revealed by SEM observations, and their water contents had increased significantly. Solid state NMR, Py-GC/MS, imaging FTIR microscopy and 2D-XRD results demonstrated that the deterioration resulted from the partial cleavages of both polysaccharide backbones and cellulose hydrogen-bonding networks, almost complete elimination of acetyl side chains of hemicellulose, the partial depletion of β-O-4 interlinks, as well as oxidation and demethylation/demethoxylation of lignin. These further caused the disoriented arrangement of crystalline cellulose, and the decrease in cellulose crystallite dimensions and crystallinity. In consequence, mesopores and macropores formed, and the number of moisture-adsorbed sites and their accessibility increased. Moreover, results on free water deduced by the changes of pore structure and the maximum monolayer water capacity achieved by the GAB model indicated that water in waterlogged archeological wooden artifacts was mainly free water in mesopores.

In: IAWA Journal

Seed size has been considered a key factor influencing the dynamics of plant communities, but few empirical, within-community predictions have been made based on seed size. Data on species density, biomass, frequency, and seed size were measured in alpine meadows with different grazing gradients in Northwest China. Seed mass variance and range within community were analyzed and relationships between seed size and density, biomass, and frequency within community were evaluated. Our results showed that vegetation height, coverage, and productivity decreased significantly with increasing grazing intensity. Species richness and total individual density were greatest in moderately-grazed meadow. Mean seed mass, mean coefficient of variation of seed mass, and seed mass range within community showed a consistent trend of moderately-grazed meadow > ungrazed meadow > heavily-grazed meadow. Correlation analyses showed that seed size was positively related to species density, biomass, and frequency within community in ungrazed meadow, but was negatively related to species density, biomass, and frequency within community in heavily-grazed meadow. Our study suggests that grazing disturbance can alter the relationship between seed size and dominance for coexistent species within communities. With increasing grazing intensity, the advantages of species density, biomass, and frequency were switched from the larger-seeded species to the smaller-seeded species within the community.

In: Israel Journal of Ecology and Evolution

Abstract

Environmental cues play important roles in the regulation of an animal's physiology and behavior. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that ambient temperature was a cue to induce adjustments in body mass, energy intake and thermogenic capacity, associated with the role of the liver for adaptive thermogenesis in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri), a unique species of small mammals in the Oriental realm. Many targets were measured, such as the state 3 and the state 4 of mitochondrial respiration, the protein content of mitochondria of the liver in T. belangeri under prolonged cold acclimation (5±1°C, 12L : 12D light cycle) during different times [0 d (control), 7 d, 14 d, 21 d, 28 d]. We found the total protein, mitochondrial protein, and the state 3 and the state 4 of mitochondrial respiration of the liver greatly increased by 39.9%, 39.3%, 84.9% and 181.1% after 28 d in T. belangeri when exposed to cold, as compared with the controls, respectively. Thus, the liver plays a key role in the adaptive thermogenesis during cold acclimation in tree shrews; we believed that evidence from the physiological ecology is equally supportive of the island origin of tree shrews, T. belangeri.

In: Animal Biology

Abstract

The endangered giant panda is the flagship species of wildlife conservation, a status that results in heightened attention to their well-being. However, one factor that hinders the ability to monitor this species in the wild is the difficulty to measure relevant physiological parameters which quantify the survival status in conservation research. In this study, we employed a non-invasive sampling method and immunochemical assays to determine if measurement of fecal steroid hormones is a viable option in monitoring the sex ratios and stress levels of a giant panda population. The results indicate that 1) the yearly concentration of fecal testosterone is a possible biomarker for distinguishing gender, and 2) invasive methods of artificial insemination and semen collection as well as parturition, cause an increase in fecal cortisol concentration. This study suggests that the noninvasive sampling of feces can be a practical tool to monitor physiological stress in free-ranging and fenced giant panda populations, and could be useful in the forthcoming giant panda census in determining sex ratios in the wild.

In: Animal Biology