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The history of the Madhyamaka, one of the two main Indian Mahāyāna Buddhist philosophical traditions, began around the second century A.D. with the appearance of the writings of Nāgārjuna and Nāgārjuna's followers. Several of these writings were transmitted to China in the first decade of the fifth century, and had exerted a considerable influence on the development of Chinese Buddhist thought. This book examines the three stages of development of Chinese Madhyamaka, focussing attention on the different ways the representative figures of each stage applied basic Madhyamaka principles to deal with the central Buddhist doctrinal issues of their age.
The chief aim of this book is to locate an ideological nucleus and to trace a general pattern of transformation, referring to which the precise significance of the key theoretical elements and the exact relationship between the main doctrinal aspects of a broad Buddhist intellectual trend can be clearly demonstrated and accurately defined.
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LIU Dachun and LIU Yongmou

A prominent phenomenon in contemporary philosophy of science has been the unexpected rise of alternative philosophers of science. This article analyses in depth such alternative philosophers of science as Paul Feyerabend, Richard Rorty, and Michel Foucault, summarizing the similarities and differences between alternative philosophies of science and traditional philosophy of science so as to unveil the trends in contemporary philosophy of science. With its different principles and foundation, alternative philosophy of science has made breakthroughs in terms of its field of vision, scope, and methodology, and its relationship with science has become more humanistic and pluralistic. Attention should be given to alternative perspectives in the contemporary philosophy of science, and research should be expanded into the fields of the epistemology of science and cognitive science, the sociology of scientific knowledge and scientific anthropology, the scientific cultural philosophy, and scientific ethics.

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LIU Danqing and LIU Danqing ???

Ideophonic reduplication is a special type of reduplication in Mandarin Chinese. By repeating the mere sounds of a word or expression taken from the linguistic context, it turns content words into temporary ideophones. I argue that this operation highlights the signifiant (the acoustic form) and downplays the signifié (the concept referring to the subject in reality) of the reduplicated segments. This type of reduplication differs from pragmatic repetition, and it has a number of distinctive characteristics. I argue that the development of ideophonic reduplication in Chinese is closely connected with the typological characteristics of Chinese.

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LIU Zhiyuan and LIU Qing

Escalation of commitment is a well-known investment trap, which is irrational from an economic point of view but inevitable due to psychological factors. Based on a role-playing experiment, this paper intends to analyze the impact of different effects of the prospect theory on the tendency of escalating commitment in different decision-making processes, and discusses whether certain decision-making processes can mitigate the tendency of escalating commitment. Our empirical results indicate that groups with prior individual consideration can make better decisions involving effects of the prospect theory than individuals and groups.

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Wenliang Liu and Ruiyu Liu (J. Y. Liu)


A new species of the genus Michelea Kensley & Heard, 1991, M. takeda, from the Beibu Gulf (Tonkin Gulf), northern South China Sea, is described and illustrated. The new species is closely allied to M. leura (Poore & Griffin, 1979) but differs markedly in its wider rostrum, the lower margin of the propodus of pereopod 1 being distinctly convex and the shorter uropodal endopod. This genus is recorded for the first time from Chinese waters.