Mutual Accommodation in the Church-State Relationship in China?

A Case Study of the Sanjiang Church Demolition in Zhejiang

Zhidong Hao and Yan Liu

The campaign of church demolitions and cross removals in Zhejiang from 2013 to 2016 has revealed some uneasiness in the religion-state relationship in China. The party-state has had a policy of “mutual accommodation” since the 1990s, and the official churches are good examples of such accommodation. But the demolition of Sanjiang Church shows the limits of the policy. In this case study, we argue that mutual accommodation between the two sides is still possible but constrained by two factors: the broad political and policy structure, and the individuals involved in the interaction between church and state. This case study helps to shed some light on an issue that has a far-reaching effect on sociopolitical change in China.

Yunyun Cheng, Songcai Liu, Ying Zhang, Dan Su, Gang Wang, Chen Lv, Yu Zhang, Hao Yu, Linlin Hao and Jiabao Zhang

Heat stress dramatically decreases bull sperm quality and has recently received more attention due to the warmer global climate and more intensive production. However, no data exist regarding sperm quality or the related molecular mechanisms under heat stress. Recent studies showed that inducible heat shock proteins (HSPs) play an important role in the dairy heat stress regulation. In this article, to investigate the impacts of heat stress on sperm quality and the associated molecular mechanisms, sperm quality and enzyme activities concerning acrosome reaction were assessed in Simmental, Limousin and Yanbian bulls under heat stress. Subsequently, changes in heat shock protein expression profiles of Simmental bulls were observed, because we observed that sperm quality of these bulls was most sensitive to heat stress. Finally, the relationship between sperm quality and heat shock protein expression under heat stress was analyzed. The results show that summer heat stress decreased the sperm quality of the three bull breeds significantly. Moreover, different levels of heat stimulation induced various enzyme activity changes, among which the activity change in acrosomal enzyme was the most remarkable. Furthermore, the expression of heat shock proteins in the sperm was influenced by the imposed heat stress, among which the expression levels of HSP60 and HSP70 were increased while HSP90 decreased. In summary, our data show that heat stress seriously affects sperm quality and that HSP90 was most sensitive, although it should be noted that seasonal effects may confound these results. This change in heat shock protein expression may be the major factor that affected the sperm quality of the bulls. The findings may provide a new hypothesis for how heat stress impacts reproduction mechanistically.

Donghua Liu, Wusheng Jiang, Lin Guo, Yuqing Hao, Cheng Lu and Fengmei Zhao

The effects of different concentrations of nickel sulfate on root growth and nucleoli in root tip cells of Allium cepa were studied. The concentrations of nickel sulfate (NiSO4 · 7H2O) used were in the range of 10−7-10−1M. The results showed that nickel sulfate has a stimulatory effect on root growth at lower concentrations, and an inhibitory effect at higher concentrations. Nickel has toxic effects on nucleoli at higher concentrations. Phenomena we observed were irregularly shaped nucleoli, weaker silver staining reaction at the periphery of the nucleolus, and extrusion of nucleolar material from nuclei into the cytoplasm after treatment with higher concentrations of Ni.

Xugan Wu, Meimei Liu, Jie Pan, Hao Chen, Chaoshu Zeng and Yongxu Cheng

Although pond culture is the major culture method for Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) in China, the pattern of ovarian development in pond-reared E. sinensis remains unclear. This study investigated the changes in ovarian morphology and histology, gonadosomatic index (GSI), hepatosomatic index (HSI), and monthly variation of the ovarian development pattern during the ovarian maturation of pond-reared female E. sinensis. Based on the pubertal moult, and ovarian morphology and histology, the ovarian development cycle of E. sinensis could be divided into five stages, i.e., Stage I: the ovary appears thin ribbon-like and translucent, dominated by oogonia (OG) and previtellogenic oocytes (PRO); Stage II: the ovary appears milk white or buff, dominated by endogenous vitellogenic oocytes (EN); Stage III: the ovary appears orange or light brown, dominated by exogenous vitellogenic oocytes (EX); Stage IV: the ovary appears crimson red or brown and ovarian lobes occupy most available body cavities. The major oocytes were nearly mature oocytes (NO); Stage V: the ovary appears deep purple and is filled with mature oocytes (MO). During ovarian maturation, the GSI increased significantly and a significant, positive correlation was found between the GSI and the mean long diameter of the oocyte from stage III to stage V. However, a significantly negative correlation was found between GSI and HSI. The ovarian development of pond-reared female E. sinensis was not synchronous, most of the pubertal moults were found until mid-late August. At the end of August, the percentages of females that reached ovarian stages II and III were 55 and 24%, respectively. After that, the ovarian development of pond-reared female E. sinensis became fast, and females with stage III or more advanced ovaries were found to be in excess of 80% by the end of September and onward. From the end of November to late December, the GSI of female E. sinensis did not increase significantly, which indicated pond-reared females had reached mature or nearly-mature ovaries by the end of November.

Qiao Liu, Hao Feng, Long Jin, Zhi Ping Mi, Zhao Min Zhou and Wen Bo Liao

Abstract

Bergmann’s rule states that within a species of endotherms smaller individuals are found in warmer conditions, which is consistent for nearly all endotherms, while in ectotherms body size patterns are less consistent. As ectothermic vertebrates, the morphology of amphibians is likely impacted by climatic conditions. Here, we examined latitudinal variation in body size in the ranid frog, Fejervarya limnocharis, based on literature and our own data on mean body size of 3637 individuals from 50 populations and average age of 2873 individuals from 40 populations in China. The results showed that body size was positively correlated with environmental temperature, but not with precipitation. Body size was negatively correlated with latitude among populations in this species, which supported the inverse of Bergmann’s rule. Our findings suggest that a larger body size in low-latitude populations is associated with a longer growing season related to the higher environmental temperature.