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In: International Journal of Comparative Sociology

Although the significance of values is not disputed, it appears hard to define and investigate values properly. Values are not visible or measurable directly; they can only be postulated or inferred. A sophisticated theory of values has not yet developed, and the terminological jungle with regard to the definition of values remains, allowing for different interpretations and appraisals, as well as different approaches to investigate them. ⸙

in Vocabulary for the Study of Religion Online
Volume Editors: and
Since the dramatic events in 1989 and 1990, Central and Eastern Europeans have been engaged in a process of democratization and liberalization which are transforming their societies fundamentally. The rapid transformation processes appear to be very differential and the particular patterns are complex to interpret and understand. This volume elaborates on a number of issues that seem particular important for the people in Central and Eastern Europe: the development and working of democracy, the public support for, legitimacy and efficacy of democracy and the free market economy, and of course the stability of the newly established political culture.
In: International Journal of Comparative Sociology


According to the secularization theory, Western societies have witnessed a gradual but steady decline in religiosity and its impact on society, both in the public and the private realms. It is assumed that previously religion and morality were closely connected. The processes of individualization and secularization have induced a weakening of these strong ties. Since individualization and secularization did not proceed uniformly in all Western countries, partly caused by differences in social, economic and political histories and circumstances, imposing different constraints, the receipt of individualization and secularization met with different obstacles. Therefore (large) cross-national differences in the degree of religious involvement and religion's impact on other social values are to be expected. Using the survey data from the European Values Studies, fielded in 1981 and 1990, hypotheses on increasing internal and external value differentiation or value fragmentation are investigated. Internal value differentiation refers to the degree of heterogeneity within a given value dimension; external value differentiation refers to the relationships between different value dimensions. In other words, the article asks what is true of the idea that religion and morality concerning sexual issues and ethical behaviours have become differentiated, fragmented value domains? Cross-national differences between Catholic, Protestant and religiously mixed countries are further explored in the article.

In: Journal of Empirical Theology
In: Changing Values, Persisting Cultures
In: The Cultural Diversity of European Unity
In: Religion in Secularizing Society
In: Religion in Secularizing Society