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  • Author or Editor: Loren T. Stuckenbruck x
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In: Religions and Trade


In the Enochic Apocalypse of Weeks (1 En. 93:1–10; 91:11–17) the numbers “ten” and “seven” are especially prominent and no obvious four kingdom scheme can be discerned. Nevertheless, the way time is structured in this tradition can be compared with chronologies and timeframes in parallel texts such as the Animal Apocalypse (1 En. 85–90; Daniel 7 and 9; and Si-bylline Oracles books 1–2 and 4). In drawing comparisons, it should not be assumed that Danielic chronologies have influenced the historiographical structures in the other texts. In view of the comparisons made, the Apoca-lypse of Weeks, especially in its combination of numerical schemes, reflects a certain integrity that cannot be merely explained by an underlying tradi-tion and, in any case, serves as one witness among many to a vibrant time-shaping activity in Jewish scribal culture during the 2nd century BCE.

Open Access
In: Four Kingdom Motifs before and beyond the Book of Daniel

This article proposes that parallel traditions among the Dead Sea Scrolls offer a comparative data-set by which to reassess “the Synoptic problem” in the New Testament gospels. The Dead Sea materials, not only shared traditions but also differences between them, whether in the manuscripts of the same work or overlapping portions of different works, show similarities to the ways in which the Gospels of Mark, Matthew, Luke, and the putative “Q” overlap and depart from one another. The multiple degrees in which some Dead Sea texts evolved underscore the plausibility that, with or without the influence of oral tradition, texts could change and develop rapidly through literary activity in a relatively short period of time.

In: Dead Sea Discoveries


To the extent that a writing openly presents itself as the result of authorial activity, discussions of genre cannot dispense with the question of how, formally, communication occurs. Taking the Epistle of Enoch and Apocalypse of Weeks in 1 Enochas the points of departure, the present essay attempts to show that a discussion of what a document declares about its own writtenness opens up a way of understanding it in comparison to other documents that do the same along analogous lines, whether sapiential or apocalyptic.

In: Dead Sea Discoveries
In: New Perspectives on Old Texts
In: Aramaica Qumranica
In: The Early Enoch Literature