This chapter provides a brief survey of the "heart" in the Dead Sea Scrolls and gives a brief consideration of the use of this term in relation to both biblical tradition and evolved usage in the later texts. It examines several texts which refer to activity "with a double heart". Exploring this motif, the chapter also gives a better position to understand how "the heart" functions in two contemporary, yet very different, modes of discourse and to see what this means for the theological anthropologies adopted by the writers of the texts. The chapter also examines the degree to which such transformation may or may not be observed in relation to two motifs of the first list. In such an examination, the significance of examining the Scrolls within broader streams of tradition during the Second Temple period becomes apparent.