This article proposes that parallel traditions among the Dead Sea Scrolls offer a comparative data-set by which to reassess “the Synoptic problem” in the New Testament gospels. The Dead Sea materials, not only shared traditions but also differences between them, whether in the manuscripts of the same work or overlapping portions of different works, show similarities to the ways in which the Gospels of Mark, Matthew, Luke, and the putative “Q” overlap and depart from one another. The multiple degrees in which some Dead Sea texts evolved underscore the plausibility that, with or without the influence of oral tradition, texts could change and develop rapidly through literary activity in a relatively short period of time.
To the extent that a writing openly presents itself as the result of authorial activity, discussions of genre cannot dispense with the question of how, formally, communication occurs. Taking the Epistle of Enoch and Apocalypse of Weeks in 1 Enochas the points of departure, the present essay attempts to show that a discussion of what a document declares about its own writtenness opens up a way of understanding it in comparison to other documents that do the same along analogous lines, whether sapiential or apocalyptic.
This chapter provides a brief survey of the "heart" in the Dead Sea Scrolls and gives a brief consideration of the use of this term in relation to both biblical tradition and evolved usage in the later texts. It examines several texts which refer to activity "with a double heart". Exploring this motif, the chapter also gives a better position to understand how "the heart" functions in two contemporary, yet very different, modes of discourse and to see what this means for the theological anthropologies adopted by the writers of the texts. The chapter also examines the degree to which such transformation may or may not be observed in relation to two motifs of the first list. In such an examination, the significance of examining the Scrolls within broader streams of tradition during the Second Temple period becomes apparent.