A total of 35 morphological characters (biometry, scalation, chromatic pattern) were studied through multivariate analyses on 10 populations sampled across the range of the Iberian wall lizard (Podarcis hispanica) in Portugal. Biometry clearly splits the samples into two different types. Differences in scalation between the two types were not clear, but multiple correspondence analyses showed that different chromatic patterns fit each of the types: one presented dark dorsal patterns (e.g. reticulated, eyeled, striped) and whitish-pearly belly, while the other showed green or yellow-brown patterns and yellow-orange belly. These two morphotypes constitute different molecular lineages and have different ranges of distribution.
This article presents a novel approach to the study of primate personality and illustrates it with a study of capuchin monkeys. While most personality studies with capuchin monkeys have used rating questionnaires, the research method of this study relies instead on direct behaviour observations. In an effort to capitalize on the full richness of behavioural observation data, we used both statistical and non-statistical methods to analyse data from behavioural observations of a group of capuchin monkeys in captivity. Interest in capuchin monkeys as a species has increased due to their cognitive capacities, behavioural flexibility and complex social structure, as well as many similarities with great apes in dimensions of personality. In this study we focus in three aspects of personality: diversity, flexibility and complexity. Our results provide a detailed picture of these aspects of capuchins’ personality, including the degree of “predictability” and “unusualness” of individual capuchins’ behaviour.
This is the first report of coexistence of pedunculate barnacles, Conchoderma auritum and C. virgatum in the mouth, and with the copepod Gloiopotes huttoni in the precaudal zone, on the black marlin, Istiompax indica, a as host. This is also the first note of a new non-mammalian host for C. auritum. The host specimen was caught in sport fishing in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, eastern Pacific. A review of registered occurrences of the genus Conchoderma in species of the fish family Istiophoridae is provided.