By artificially sampling 305 Chinese foundations, the paper conducts an empirical study on how political connections influence foundations’ acquisition of resources. As it turns out, the influence of political connections on foundations’ policy resources is insignificant, and this does not change with the changes of the nature and sector of the foundation and the degree of marketization of the environment it is in. Political connections have significant influence upon donations, particularly those from domestic natural persons – this is particularly true with public-fundraising foundations, public-service foundations and areas where marketization is at a relatively low level. The influence of the extent and depth of political connections on the foundation’s acquisition of resources fails to pass the significance test. The conclusion the study arrives at implies that on the part of the government, policies should not focus on banning Party and government cadres from holding a concurrent post in a foundation, but on how to regulate their acts and prevent them from seeking private gains by taking advantage of its concurrent post of director; and that on the part of the foundation, in the current context, it can seek to establish political connections and increase its capacity of attracting donated resources.
In China, most university education foundations seek to increase fundraising capacity through the strategy of interlocking directorates, establishing a resource-sharing platform with alumni associations. Supported by resource-dependence theory and social network theory, based on data from a sample of 88 foundations, this study tests the effectiveness of the strategy of interlocking directorates. The result of the study shows that the secretary-general intensity has a significant negative influence on fundraising capacity, while the board-chairperson intensity and the interlocking range have no significant influence on fundraising capacity. Under the existing management system, university education foundations can get beyond the predicament of the ineffective strategy of interlocking directorates by further standardizing their systems and procedures for appointing directors, giving greater impetus to the transformation of individual capital into social capital, and promoting professional and specialized operations.
Cellulase genes are very important for plant-parasitic nematodes to move and feed within their host plants. The pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, causes destructive damage by killing pine trees. In this study, by employing dsRNA interference technology, knockdown of a cellulase gene (Bx-eng-1) of B. xylophilus was achieved and the biological effects of RNAi on the nematode were observed. The result showed that, after 24 h soaking, dsRNA of the Bx-eng-1 gene was effectively delivered into the nematode causing a post-transcriptional gene silencing and decrease in cellulase activity. Moreover, the number of F1 generation offspring was reduced significantly when the dsRNA-treated nematodes were cultured on fungal mats. We consider that cellulase is important to B. xylophilus because it not only hydrolyses cellulose of plant cell wall for its parasitism and penetration in host plants, but also influences its feeding, development and propagation on fungal mats.