The green tiger shrimp, Penaeus semisulcatus, is a commercial species supporting important fishery along the Palk Bay coasts. It is a much sought-after seafood commodity influencing the livelihood of the local fishers. This study aims to investigate the fecundity of the species in relation to its morphometry. Fecundity is an index of reproductive capacity used to calculate a stock’s reproductive potential and the egg’s survival. The absolute fecundity of the shrimp ranged from 26 100 to 750 000 ova alive per female, and the mean absolute fecundity from 59 100 to 583 000 ova alive per female. The relationship between fecundity and the morphometric measurements showed a positive exponential correlation. One-way ANOVA indicated a significant difference in the different size classes’ carapace length, total weight, ovary weight, absolute fecundity, stomach weight, and gastrosomatic index. There was no significant difference between the relative fecundity and the gonadosomatic index. This study provides insight into the reproductive potential of P. semisulcatus for efficient management of the resource in Palk Bay, Tamil Nadu, India.