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In: Exchange
In: Exchange

The results showed that meat from animals finished on pasture, even when grains supplementation is adopted, have a lower level of C16:0, an atherogenic fatty acid, and a higher level of health favorable fatty acids, such as the C18:3n3 (ALA), EPA and DHA. The n-3 fatty acids level were higher in meat from animals fed on pasture, even with supplementation, in comparison to concentrate. The thrombogenic indice is high in meat from animals fed on concentrate, but there are no differences for the atherogenic indice. In conclusion, meat from animals fed on pasture, even when supplemented with grains, produce healthier meat in regards to the fatty acids composition and some health lipid indices.

In: 63rd International Congress of Meat Science and Technology

In the Uruguayan market, the commercial value of the forequarter cuts is generally lower than the one from hindquarter cuts. However, the price differences are not necessarily associated with a better nutritional value. Therefore, the objective of this investigation was to compare the fatty acids composition of the ‘Paleta’ (PAL), a forequarter cut, and the ‘Nalga de afuera’ (NAL), a hindquarter cut. Both cuts are typical of the meat market of Uruguay. The results showed that NAL presents more nutritionally relevant fatty acids such as C18:3n-3, EPA, DPA and DHA, but not CLA. In conclusion, the higher commercial value of NAL as a hindquarter cut is associated to a better nutritional value, at least regarding the fatty acids composition.

In: 63rd International Congress of Meat Science and Technology

The results showed an apparent effect of the feeding system on the activity of desaturases, namely Δ9, Δ5 and Δ6 desaturases. That could explain the differences of fatty acids composition of meat from Longissimus dorsi muscle in the investigation. It seems that steers fed concentrate present higher Δ9 desaturases activities than steers fed pasture, even with corn supplementation. That could explain the higher level of C14:1 and C16:1 fatty acids in meat of animals fed concentrate. Besides, the higher activities of Δ5 and Δ6 in meat from steers fed pasture supplemented with corn, could explain the higher level of most n-3 fatty acids such as C18:3n-3, EPA and DHA. No differences in the activities of elongase and thioesterase were observed.

In: 63rd International Congress of Meat Science and Technology

The aim of this paper was characterize the meat from Corriedale lambs from pastoral system by trace minerals content, and lipid oxidation and heme iron in the fresh and aged muscle Longissimus dorsi. Ten lambs aged of 13 months were used and mineral content as Zn, Se, and Cu were measured in fresh meat and lipid oxidation, iron and heme iron content were measured at 0 and 14 days post mortem. This preliminary work shows that Corriedale meat is a good source of Fe, Cu and Zn for human nutrition and 100 g/day contributes with 25, 48 and 80% and 1/6, 18 and 25% of infants and elderly RDA respectively. Meat selenium is 100% of AI for infants and 70% of elderly RDA. Also, TBARS do not change with ageing but iron and heme iron decrease with ageing. In conclusion, this lamb meat contains interesting levels of trace minerals for health but some of them, particularly iron change during ageing.

In: 63rd International Congress of Meat Science and Technology

This paper summarizes the content of micronutrients in beef meat coming from the two predominant feeding systems in Uruguay: pasture-based and concentrate-based. Twenty Aberdeen Angus (AA) steers from 26-30 months of age were used. Ten were pasture-grazed and ten were from an intensive feeding system finished 100 days with concentrate. At 36 hours post mortem muscle Longissimus dorsi (LD) was removed. Meat was vacuum packed and stored at -80 °C prior analysis. Creatine, carnosine, anserine, β-carotene, α-tocopherol, heme iron, minerals and lipid content were quantified. Meat from pastures contained significantly more creatine and carnosine than meat from concentrated based systems, but both contained a similar level of anserine. Also, important differences were found in meat from pastures, for iron and heme iron content, selenium and vitamins, such as carotenoids and tocopherol, whose contents were higher than in meat from concentrated. However, the levels of copper and lipids were significantly higher in meat from concentrated.

In: 63rd International Congress of Meat Science and Technology

Overweight and obesity in horses affect their athletic performance negatively, making it therefore necessary to develop training protocols that reduce their body fat without causing hoof injuries. The objective of the study was to describe the effect of the application of a swimming training program on metabolic and endocrine variables, in addition to evaluating the changes in subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT) in a group of overweight Colombian Paso Horses (CPHs). Six CPHs were subjected to a decreasing intensity swimming program for four months. The effect of this training on metabolic variables (i.e. aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose) and endocrines (cortisol and insulin) was studied every two months. Additionally, changes in the neck, lumbar, and gluteal SFTs were evaluated. The information was analysed using descriptive statistics, in addition to repeated measures analysis of variance for non-parametric data in the three training moments (P<0.1) and correlation analysis between the SFT and the metabolic and endocrine variables of interest. The swimming training program for CPHs tested in this study produced more evident redistribution of adipose tissue in the gluteal region (Initial SFT = 5.2±2.08 mm; Final SFT = 3.45±2.8 mm), conversion of body mass without weight modification, and use of energy sources such as triglycerides and increased sensitivity to insulin. A limitation of the study was that the horses were not selected according to age, nor were control animals used. In addition, the limited number of horses makes extrapolation of the results inappropriate. In conclusion, the swimming training program with decreasing intensity carried out over a four-month period modified body adipose tissue in CPHs, promoting the use of energy sources, such as triglycerides and increased insulin sensitivity.

In: Comparative Exercise Physiology

Entomophagy or consumption of insects has significantly increased worldwide, either for pleasure or to satisfy the food needs in developing countries. There are approximately 2,000 species of edible insects distributed in 120 countries. From these 2,000 species, about 540 are located in Mexico; one of the most consumed are the escamoles. Escamoles are larvae and pupae of the ant Liometopum apiculatum. Escamoles are nutritious because of their high content of protein, fat, carbohydrates and vitamin. However, during storage the quality of escamoles changes rapidly which affects the acceptability by the consumer. This loss of quality is probably a result of proteolytic activity of endogenous proteases. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to identify the classes of proteases in escamoles as well as to evaluate the effect of proteolytic activity on physicochemical and structural changes during storage. Proteases identification was conducted using specific inhibitors; structural changes, texture, and proteolytic activity were monitored at different days of storage. The highest proteolytic activities (P<0.05) were observed at pH 8, 9 and 10 and at 37 and 50 °C. Proteases were mainly inhibited by iodoacetic acid and soybean trypsin inhibitor showing that cysteine and serine proteases were dominant. High proteolytic activity, significant (P<0.05) reduction in texture and weight loss was observed during storage. The deterioration of escamoles was evident in analyses of images, where initial structure was lost during storage. These results indicate that different groups of proteases are associated with rapid deterioration of escamoles.

In: Journal of Insects as Food and Feed

Escamoles are the larvae of the antLiometopum apiculatum and have been consumed in Mexico since pre-Hispanic times. Currently, they are one of the most consumed insects in Mexico because of their organoleptic and nutritional characteristics. Escamoles are rich in protein, unsaturated fatty acids, including oleic, linoleic, linolenic, and arachidic acid, as well as vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin. Escamoles, however, have a shelf life of five days at 4 °C. Canning is an alternative process for increasing their shelf life and creating new products. Therefore, the objective of this study was to include traditional Mexican food ingredients for creating new canned escamoles products, as well as to determine and validate the canning time. Four canned escamoles products were obtained according to an official Mexican regulation using the following ingredients: mole, adobo, butter, Mexican mix, and tamarind sauce. Cylindrical cans with a diameter of 68 mm and height of 76 mm were used in all experiments. The sterilisation process was performed with saturated steam at 121 °C. The process time was calculated with a graphic method and validated by a microbiological test. Additionally, thermophysical properties, chemical composition, lipid oxidation, structural changes, and sensory evaluation were determined after the canning process. The process time (P<0.05) of products varied between 13 to 38 min. The microbiological tests were negative in all experiments. The chemical composition and thermophysical properties of products (P<0.05) were dependent on the ingredient used. The escamoles structure remained intact after the canning process. The hedonic scale for escamoles in the Mexican mix and in butter was 5.0, equivalent to ‘like slightly’. For the products in mole and tamarind sauce, the score was 4.0, meaning ‘neither like nor dislike’. The inclusion of Mexican gastronomic ingredients in canned escamoles allowed designing new products without damaging the nutritional and sensory characteristics of escamoles.

In: Journal of Insects as Food and Feed