In Brazil, the Rights of the Child are guaranteed under the Federal Constitution. Brazilian law combats sexual violence and protects children. Among the five Brazilian regions, the Northeast reported the most incidents of violence against children and adolescents, with a rate of more than 94 per 100 thousand inhabitants in the first half of 2010. Of these, 28.71% were cases of sexual violence. The State of Bahia ranks third in Brazil with the highest number of reported incidents of child sexual abuse. This state has 61 law schools of which 12 are public and 49 private. The goal of this article is to discuss the role of law schools in the preparation of the lawyer to act in defence of the child victim of sexual abuse in Bahia. A qualitative method was used, with a literature review, legislation review, semi-structured interviews with young lawyers and a survey of the Resolutions of the Ministry of Education and Culture. For the interviews, professionals who had graduated within the last five years were selected from five different law schools in the Bahian capital. It should be noted that the topic of the Rights of the Child— based on Resolution 9/2004 of National Commission on Higher-Education—is not part of the basic curriculum of the study of Law. Some law schools offer a course on the Right of the Child as a requirement. The professionals interviewed, even after having taken a course on children’s rights, do not feel adequately prepared to deal with the child victim of sexual abuse. In order for the professional to act as a social change agent able to integrate legal concepts regarding the defence of children, it is necessary for him to understand the interpretation of laws from an interdisciplinary perspective under the egis of Human Rights.
The urination pattern of the Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis
mossambicus) depends on social context, and the olfactory potency
of urine released depends on social rank (males) and reproductive status
(females). This strongly suggests that urine mediates chemical communication in
this species. The current study tested, firstly, whether urine production rate
depends on sex or social status and, secondly, whether differences in urination
pattern and volume of urine stored are associated with variation in the
morphology of the urinary bladder. Finally, the effect of urination during
aggressive male–male interactions was assessed. Urine production in
catheterized fish depended neither on sex nor social status (males).
Nevertheless, males had larger kidneys than females. Dominant males had heavier
urinary bladders than subordinate males or females, mainly due to enlarged
muscle fibres, thicker urothelium and a thicker smooth muscle layer. In male
pairs wherein urination was prevented by temporary constriction of the genital
papillae, social interaction escalated to aggression (mouth-to-mouth fighting)
more rapidly and frequently than control pairs. This was accompanied by elevated
plasma testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone levels. In control encounters, the
male that initiated the aggressive behaviour was usually the winner of the
subsequent fight; this did not happen when the males could not urinate. These
results suggest that the larger, more muscular bladder of dominant males is an
adaptation, facilitating higher urination frequency, post-renal modulation and
storage of larger urine volumes for longer. It is likely that urinary pheromones
modulate aggression in male–male encounters by providing information on
the social rank and/or motivation of the emitter; males are unlikely to invest
in costly highly aggressive fights if they judge their opponent to be more
dominant. Thus, a morphological explanation for the differing urination patterns
of dominant and subordinant males, and females, has been provided, and a
possible function for this behaviour in male–male interactions is
There are various parameters that affect tree height and may cause dwarfism. Our goal was to study the anatomical variations in the leaf and xylem structure in dwarf and normal trees of Copaifera langsdorffii and their correlation with physico-chemical properties of the soils. Trees from two spatially close but different vegetation types, transitional forest and rupestrian field, showed markedly different wood and leaf characteristics. Adult trees of C. langsdorffii show normal height (up to 25 m) in transitional forests while in the rupestrian field they show dwarfism (small trees up to 2.5 m tall). Physical soil characteristics (such as rocky crust, low water availability due to shallow soil) presumably limit root growth and affect the rate of photosynthesis, which consequently affect the extension growth of the plant. Compared to normal trees, C. langsdorffii dwarf trees are characterized by narrow vessels and a higher proportion of vessels in multiples, features of the water transport system/hydraulic structure known to prevent embolism, wider rays with a greater potential to store starch, and higher stomatal density and potential conductance index.
We studied wood anatomy and specific gravity in a total of 18 trees of Ocotea curucutuensis, a recently described species, lacking wood anatomical information. Nine sample trees were obtained in each of two areas, Pico do Itapeva (PI) and Núcleo Curucutu (NC), both in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. These areas have marked differences in precipitation, altitude, and temperature. Anatomical differences between the two populations appeared related to tree size, and possibly indirectly to climate. Higher wood specific gravity related with the smaller diameter in NC trees is hypothesized to contribute to mechanical support of the epiphyte-laden trees and to resistance against the prevailing strong winds.
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