In Brazil, the Rights of the Child are guaranteed under the Federal Constitution. Brazilian law combats sexual violence and protects children. Among the five Brazilian regions, the Northeast reported the most incidents of violence against children and adolescents, with a rate of more than 94 per 100 thousand inhabitants in the first half of 2010. Of these, 28.71% were cases of sexual violence. The State of Bahia ranks third in Brazil with the highest number of reported incidents of child sexual abuse. This state has 61 law schools of which 12 are public and 49 private. The goal of this article is to discuss the role of law schools in the preparation of the lawyer to act in defence of the child victim of sexual abuse in Bahia. A qualitative method was used, with a literature review, legislation review, semi-structured interviews with young lawyers and a survey of the Resolutions of the Ministry of Education and Culture. For the interviews, professionals who had graduated within the last five years were selected from five different law schools in the Bahian capital. It should be noted that the topic of the Rights of the Child— based on Resolution 9/2004 of National Commission on Higher-Education—is not part of the basic curriculum of the study of Law. Some law schools offer a course on the Right of the Child as a requirement. The professionals interviewed, even after having taken a course on children’s rights, do not feel adequately prepared to deal with the child victim of sexual abuse. In order for the professional to act as a social change agent able to integrate legal concepts regarding the defence of children, it is necessary for him to understand the interpretation of laws from an interdisciplinary perspective under the egis of Human Rights.

In: Sexuality, Oppression and Human Rights
In: Nematologica

The urination pattern of the Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) depends on social context, and the olfactory potency of urine released depends on social rank (males) and reproductive status (females). This strongly suggests that urine mediates chemical communication in this species. The current study tested, firstly, whether urine production rate depends on sex or social status and, secondly, whether differences in urination pattern and volume of urine stored are associated with variation in the morphology of the urinary bladder. Finally, the effect of urination during aggressive male–male interactions was assessed. Urine production in catheterized fish depended neither on sex nor social status (males). Nevertheless, males had larger kidneys than females. Dominant males had heavier urinary bladders than subordinate males or females, mainly due to enlarged muscle fibres, thicker urothelium and a thicker smooth muscle layer. In male pairs wherein urination was prevented by temporary constriction of the genital papillae, social interaction escalated to aggression (mouth-to-mouth fighting) more rapidly and frequently than control pairs. This was accompanied by elevated plasma testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone levels. In control encounters, the male that initiated the aggressive behaviour was usually the winner of the subsequent fight; this did not happen when the males could not urinate. These results suggest that the larger, more muscular bladder of dominant males is an adaptation, facilitating higher urination frequency, post-renal modulation and storage of larger urine volumes for longer. It is likely that urinary pheromones modulate aggression in male–male encounters by providing information on the social rank and/or motivation of the emitter; males are unlikely to invest in costly highly aggressive fights if they judge their opponent to be more dominant. Thus, a morphological explanation for the differing urination patterns of dominant and subordinant males, and females, has been provided, and a possible function for this behaviour in male–male interactions is suggested.

In: Behaviour

There are various parameters that affect tree height and may cause dwarfism. Our goal was to study the anatomical variations in the leaf and xylem structure in dwarf and normal trees of Copaifera langsdorffii and their correlation with physico-chemical properties of the soils. Trees from two spatially close but different vegetation types, transitional forest and rupestrian field, showed markedly different wood and leaf characteristics. Adult trees of C. langsdorffii show normal height (up to 25 m) in transitional forests while in the rupestrian field they show dwarfism (small trees up to 2.5 m tall). Physical soil characteristics (such as rocky crust, low water availability due to shallow soil) presumably limit root growth and affect the rate of photosynthesis, which consequently affect the extension growth of the plant. Compared to normal trees, C. langsdorffii dwarf trees are characterized by narrow vessels and a higher proportion of vessels in multiples, features of the water transport system/hydraulic structure known to prevent embolism, wider rays with a greater potential to store starch, and higher stomatal density and potential conductance index.

In: IAWA Journal

We studied wood anatomy and specific gravity in a total of 18 trees of Ocotea curucutuensis, a recently described species, lacking wood anatomical information. Nine sample trees were obtained in each of two areas, Pico do Itapeva (PI) and Núcleo Curucutu (NC), both in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. These areas have marked differences in precipitation, altitude, and temperature. Anatomical differences between the two populations appeared related to tree size, and possibly indirectly to climate. Higher wood specific gravity related with the smaller diameter in NC trees is hypothesized to contribute to mechanical support of the epiphyte-laden trees and to resistance against the prevailing strong winds.

In: IAWA Journal

- G.W.J. Drewes, Taufik Abdullah, Islam and society in Southeast Asia, Institute of Southeast Asian studies, Singapore, 1986, XII and 348 pp., Sharon Siddique (eds.) - Th. van den End, T.Valentino Sitoy, A history of Christianity in the Philippines. The initial encounter , Vol. I, Quezon City (Philippines): New day publishers, 1985. - R. Hagesteijn, David G. Marr, Southeast Asia in the 9th to 14th centuries, Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian studies and the research school of Pacific studies of the Australian National University, 1986, 416 pp., A.C. Milner (eds.) - R. Hagesteijn, Constance M. Wilson, The Burma-Thai frontier over sixteen decades - Three descriptive documents, Ohio University monographs in international studies, Southeast Asia series No. 70, 1985,120 pp., Lucien M. Hanks (eds.) - Barbara Harrisson, John S. Guy, Oriental trade ceramics in South-east Asia, ninth to sixteenth century, Oxford University Press, Singapore, 1986. [Revised, updated version of an exhibition catalogue issued in Australia in 1980, in the enlarged format of the Oxford in Asia studies of ceramic series.] 161 pp. with figs. and maps, 197 catalogue ills., numerous thereof in colour, extensive bibliography, chronol. tables, glossary, index. - V.J.H. Houben, G.D. Larson, Prelude to revolution. Palaces and politics in Surakarta, 1912-1942. VKI 124, Dordrecht/Providence: Foris publications 1987. - Marijke J. Klokke, Stephanie Morgan, Aesthetic tradition and cultural transition in Java and Bali. University of Wisconsin, Center for Southeast Asian studies, Monograph 2, 1984., Laurie Jo Sears (eds.) - Liaw Yock Fang, Mohamad Jajuli, The undang-undang; A mid-eighteenth century law text, Center for South-East Asian studies, University of Kent at Canterbury, Occasional paper No. 6, 1986, VIII + 104 + 16 pp. - S.D.G. de Lima, A.B. Adam, The vernacular press and the emergence of modern Indonesian consciousness (1855-1913), unpublished Ph. D. thesis, School of Oriental and African studies, University of London, 1984, 366 pp. - J. Thomas Lindblad, K.M. Robinson, Stepchildren of progress; The political economy of development in an Indonesian mining town, Albany: State University of New York Press, 1986, xv + 315 pp. - Pauline Lunsingh Scheurleer, J.E. van Lohuizen-de Leeuw, Indo-Javanese Metalwork, Linden-Museum, Stuttgart, Staatliches Museum für Völkerkunde, 1984, 218 pp. - H.M.J. Maier, V. Matheson, Perceptions of the Haj; Five Malay texts, Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian studies (Research notes and discussions paper no. 46), 1984; 63 pp., A.C. Milner (eds.) - Wolfgang Marschall, Sandra A. Niessen, Motifs of life in Toba Batak texts and textiles, Verhandelingen KITLV 110. Dordrecht/Cinnaminson: Foris publications, 1985. VIII + 249 pp., 60 ills. - Peter Meel, Ben Scholtens, Opkomende arbeidersbeweging in Suriname. Doedel, Liesdek, De Sanders, De kom en de werklozenonrust 1931-1933, Nijmegen: Transculturele Uitgeverij Masusa, 1986, 224 pp. - Anke Niehof, Patrick Guinness, Harmony and hierarchy in a Javanese kampung, Asian Studies Association of Australia, Singapore: Oxford University Press, 1986, 191 pp. - C.H.M. Nooy-Palm, Toby Alice Volkman, Feasts of honor; Ritual and change in the Toraja Highlands, Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, Illinois Studies in Anthropology no. 16, 1985, IX + 217 pp., 2 maps, black and white photographs. - Gert J. Oostindie, Jean Louis Poulalion, Le Surinam; Des origines à l’indépendance. La Chapelle Monligeon, s.n., 1986, 93 pp. - Harry A. Poeze, Bob Hering, The PKI’s aborted revolt: Some selected documents, Townsville: James Cook University of North Queensland. (Occasional Paper 17.) IV + 100 pp. - Harry A. Poeze, Biografisch woordenboek van het socialisme en de arbeidersbeweging in Nederland; Deel I, Amsterdam: Stichting tot Beheer van Materialen op het Gebied van de Sociale Geschiedenis IISG, 1986. XXIV + 184 pp. - S. Pompe, Philipus M. Hadjon, Perlindungan hukum bagi rakyat di Indonesia, Ph.D thesis Airlangga University, Surabaya: Airlangga University Press, 1985, xviii + 308 pp. - J.M.C. Pragt, Volker Moeller, Javanische bronzen, Staatliche Museen Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Museum für Indische Kunst, Berlin, 1985. Bilderheft 51. 62 pp., ill. - J.J. Ras, Friedrich Seltmann, Die Kalang. Eine Volksgruppe auf Java und ihre Stamm-Myth. Ein beitrag zur kulturgeschichte Javas, Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag Wiesbaden GmbH, 1987, 430 pp. - R. Roolvink, Russell Jones, Hikayat Sultan Ibrahim ibn Adham, Berkeley: Center for South and Southeast Asia Studies, University of California, Monograph Series no. 57, 1985. ix, 332 pp. - R. Roolvink, Russell Jones, Hikayat Sultan Ibrahim, Dordrecht/Cinnaminson: Foris, KITLV, Bibliotheca Indonesica vol. 24, 1983. 75 pp. - Wim Rutgers, Harry Theirlynck, Van Maria tot Rosy: Over Antilliaanse literatuur, Antillen Working Papers 11, Caraïbische Afdeling, Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, Leiden, 1986, 107 pp. - C. Salmon, John R. Clammer, ‘Studies in Chinese folk religion in Singapore and Malaysia’, Contributions to Southeast Asian Ethnography no. 2, Singapore, August 1983, 178 pp. - C. Salmon, Ingo Wandelt, Wihara Kencana - Zur chinesischen Heilkunde in Jakarta, unter Mitarbeit bei der Feldforschung und Texttranskription von Hwie-Ing Harsono [The Wihara Kencana and Chinese Therapeutics in Jakarta, with the cooperation of Hwie-Ing Harsono for the fieldwork and text transcriptions], Kölner ethopgraphische Studien Bd. 10, Berlin: Dietrich Reimer Verlag, 1985, 155 pp., 1 plate. - Mathieu Schoffeleers, 100 jaar fraters op de Nederlandse Antillen, Zutphen: De Walburg Pers, 1986, 191 pp. - Mathieu Schoffeleers, Jules de Palm, Kinderen van de fraters, Amsterdam: De Bezige Bij, 1986, 199 pp. - Henk Schulte Nordholt, H. von Saher, Emanuel Rodenburg, of wat er op het eiland Bali geschiedde toen de eerste Nederlanders daar in 1597 voet aan wal zetten. De Walburg Pers, Zutphen, 1986, 104 pp., 13 ills. and map. - G.J. Schutte, W.Ph. Coolhaas, Generale missiven van Gouverneurs-Generaal en Raden aan Heren XVII der Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie, VIII: 1725-1729, Rijks Geschiedkundige Publicatiën, Grote Serie 193, ‘s-Gravenhage, 1985, 275 pp. - H. Steinhauer, Jeff Siegel, Language contact in a plantation environment. A sociolinguistic history of Fiji, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987, xiv + 305 pp. [Studies in the social and cultural foundations of language 5.] - H. Steinhauer, L.E. Visser, Sahu-Indonesian-English Dictionary and Sahu grammar sketch, Verhandelingen van het KITLV 126, Dordrecht: Foris Publications, 1987, xiv + 258 pp., C.L. Voorhoeve (eds.) - Taufik Abdullah, H.A.J. Klooster, Indonesiërs schrijven hun geschiedenis: De ontwikkeling van de Indonesische geschiedbeoefening in theorie en praktijk, 1900-1980, Verhandelingen KITLV 113, Dordrecht/Cinnaminson: Foris Publications, 1985, Bibl., Index, 264 pp. - Maarten van der Wee, Jan Breman, Control of land and labour in colonial Java: A case study of agrarian crisis and reform in the region of Ceribon during the first decades of the 20th century, Verhandelingen of the Royal Institute of Linguistics and Anthropology, Leiden, No. 101, Dordrecht: Foris Publications, 1983. xi + 159 pp.