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This chapter introduces the history and present status of the Estonian education system and describes Estonia's past glory and present super highway of networking and digital divide. Since gaining independence in 1995 and becoming a part of the European Union, information and communication technology is making its way in all facets of Estonian society. There has been a big shift in the way people use ICT (henceforth called ICT) in their home and for communication. Unfortunately there has not been much change in the way teaching and learning takes place in Estonian educational institutions. Introduction of ICT needs a transfer of paradigm and acquisition of a set of new knowledge and skills. A number of schemes and programmes have been initiated by the government of Estonia for integration of ICT in all sectors of education. In this chapter, a new and flexible approach ofICT curriculum design and implementation suitable for a society in transition and unique to the University ofTartu has been discussed.

In: Education Reform in Societies in Transition