With explanatory notes, exercises, vocabularies and model answers. 1. [Introduction, text and exercises].
With explanatory notes, exercises, vocabularies and model answers. .2. [Introduction, key to text, vocabularies].
The Case of Agreements Commercialising the Human Body
Both English and Dutch law contain general rules that result in the invalidity of contracts which conflict with morality and/or public policy. Working on the premise that each country has its own unique set of factors shaping public interests, this article highlights methodological aspects of identifying the extent to which convergence and divergence exists in the English and Dutch approaches towards the invalidity of contracts on grounds of public policy and good morals. Contracts that tend to commercialise the human body in a manner that raises questions of compatibility with public policy and/or good morals are used as an example in this paper. These contracts are analysed using an ‘interest-based comparative methodology’. Subsequently, the results are comparatively examined. The outcome reveals that while English and Dutch law diverge significantly as far as contracts commercialising the human body are concerned, the underlying interests behind these laws appear to be quite similar.
Mansoor, Peter R.
Taqhi Azadarmaki and Mansoor Moaddel
This paper analyzes the religious beliefs, religiosity, national identity, and attitudes toward Western culture, family, and gender relations of the publics of three Islamic countries. It is based on national representative surveys of 3000 Egyptians, 2532 Iranians, and 1222 Jordanians that were carried out in 2000-2001, as part of the World Values Surveys. We first discuss the views of the respondents concerning key indicators of religious beliefs, religiosity, identity, and attitudes toward Western culture. Then, we describe variations in such values as the ideal number of children, attitudes toward marriage and women, family ties, and trusts in major social institutions in these three countries. Next, we present age and educational differences in religious beliefs, trust in mosque, identity, trust in government, attitude toward women and gender relations. We conclude by pointing to the variation in the nature of the regime as an important determinant of the variations in the worldviews among the public in these three Islamic countries.