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In: Inside Poverty and Development in Africa
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Ahead of the 2007 general elections, it was back to the drawing board for all political strategists to refashion the political landscape after the major blow to the ruling National Rainbow Coalition (NARC) in the 2005 referendum that saw the Orange Democratic Movement (ODM) successfully oppose the new constitution. The result for the year was the creation of two major new parties, NARC-Kenya and ODM-Kenya. Kenyans saw ministers stepping down over corruption allegations and being reinstated some months later and wondered how and when the substantial 6% growth in the economy would start trickling down. On 21 April, all Kenyans received a one-off public holiday of national prayer to end a series of disasters that included famine, ethnic clashes and a plane crash.

in Africa Yearbook Online
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On the political front, 2004 started in as stormy a manner as 2003, albeit in a diametrically different mood. The early months of 2003 had witnessed the much-welcomed coming to power of President Kibaki and the National Rainbow Coalition (NARC) and the ending of the uninterrupted rule of the Kenya African National Union (KANU) since independence in 1963. In 2004, tensions increased within the NARC coalition, a grouping of 13 parties and two civil-society organisations, negatively impacting the initially hopeful start.

in Africa Yearbook Online
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Presidential, parliamentary and local elections took place during 2007. At the beginning of the year, it was unclear which candidates would stand against President Kibaki or for which party Kibaki would himself stand. Political strategising culminated in a race that erupted into serious violence by year's end, claiming hundreds of lives amid accusations of election fraud. President Kibaki, praised for the economic recovery and for providing free education, was hurriedly reinstated for a second term. The world watched in disbelief as Kenya was engulfed by flames.

in Africa Yearbook Online
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On the political front, Kenya showed further signs that its political system was maturing. The National Rainbow Coalition (NARC), a shaky alliance from its very beginning in 2003, was really put to the test in 2005. Internal wrangles in the ruling coalition as well as in the opposition Kenya African National Union (KANU) made headlines, whereas Kenyans were longing for a new constitution, fighting corruption and were struggling to revive the economy. They voiced their opinions in a referendum in November over the draft of a new constitution. The outcome, rejection of the government proposal, was a clear signal and a new step forward in strengthening democracy. The donor community became increasingly critical of the domestic political situation and the lack of noticeable progress. The economy generally continued a modest upward trend, but parts of the country were hit by a severe drought.

in Africa Yearbook Online
In: International Migration and National Development in sub-Saharan Africa