This article analyzes crisis as part of deeper trends determined in historical development from the perspective of two important theoretical streams: firstly, Analytical Marxism, and secondly, the Critical Theory of Society (the Frankfurt School). It shows both general determinants of historical development and pathological determinants of historical development. Examining Analytical Marxism and its theory of technological determinism, the article explains crisis in respect of situations of systemic changes mainly from the perspective of the relationship between forces of production and relations of production. Examining the Critical Theory, the article clarifies the role of the pathological determinants of instrumental rationality in human history in relation to efforts at human emancipation. In the article, crisis is seen as the superficial appearance of the historical developmental trends where there are inherent permanent tendencies to crisis. Crisis is a temporary eruption of the deeper contradictory development of the capitalist mode of production and other systems within the history of human civilization. The article discusses an issue of determinism as a necessary framework for the interpretation of crisis, and offers an interpretation of the preconditions of crisis not only from the economic point of view, but also, on a deeper level, in a civilizational sense.
The article focuses on a comparison of three models of economic democracy: participative democracy, enterprise (co-operative) economic democracy, and autonomous economic democracy. It analyzes the main characteristics of the models, and their advantages and disadvantages. It also stresses that, at the age of global interactions, we cannot develop economic democracy in a meaningful way only within a framework of nation states because they are too small to manage big macro-regional and global problems. That is why we have to face an issue of recognition of state sovereignty, specifically absolute and shared (divided) kinds of sovereignty.
This article deals with a differentiation of the historical phases of African trajectories in the global context from independence to the present day in order to overcome colonialism and global capitalism. It explains how to understand the historical trajectories from post-colonialism to unilateralism, multilateralism, and finally, the potential of polylateralism. It focuses on the problems and tendencies of advancement in Africa, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa, in order to indicate a potential model for the social, political, economic, and cultural arrangement of relations for the recognition of people in Africa in global interactions.