Pseudaphelenchus zhoushanensis n. sp. was isolated from a dead Pinus thunbergii at Changgang Mountain, Zhoushan Islands, Zhejiang Province, China. It is characterised by the small to medium length body, cuticle slightly annulated, presence of three lateral lines, stylet 9.0-10.7 μm with small but conspicuous basal knobs, excretory pore located from same level as the metacorpus to slightly anterior to metacorpus, true bursa surrounding entire tail but inconspicuous, male tail conical with a single mucron, spicule with distinct condylus and rostrum strongly arcuate to a pointed end, female tail conical with annulation, strongly ventrally bent in distal part of tail, with terminus bluntly pointed or finely mucronate. Phylogenetic analyses using sequences of the18S and 28S D2-D3 regions of rDNA confirmed the status of P. zhoushanensis n. sp. as a new species. Combining the molecular phylogenetic analyses, morphology and biology of P. zhoushanensis n. sp. and Tylaphelenchus jiaae indicates that T. jiaae is a member of Pseudaphelenchus to which it is herein transferred as P. jiaae n. comb. (= T. jiaae).
Bursaphelenchus parapinasteri is redescribed morphologically and with new molecular characterisation. It was isolated from a dead Pinus thunbergii on Changgang Mountain, Zhoushan Islands, Zhejiang Province, China. Detailed morphology of the spicule, female gonad, hemizonid position, arrangement of male caudal papillae, and female tail terminus shape are documented. The ITS-RFLP patterns and the ITS1/2, partial 28S D2-D3 and partial 18S gene sequences were characterised. The phylogenetic analyses revealed that B. parapinasteri belongs to the hofmanni-group sensu Braasch and is close to B. anamurius, B. hofmanni, B. mazandaranense, B. paracorneolus, B. pinasteri and B. ulmophilus. A diagnostic key to species of the hofmanni-group is presented.
Ruehmaphelenchus quercophilus n. sp., isolated from a dying oak, Quercus robur, in the State Forests, Łopuchówko District, Poland, is described and figured. It is characterised by three lateral lines, relatively stout body, excretory pore posterior to nerve ring, five caudal papillae, spicules relatively small (12-14 μm) with weakly developed condylus and rostrum, bursa absent, vulva positioned at ca 78% of body length, vulval flap absent, post-uterine branch extending for slightly over half of vulva to anus distance, and conoid tail with a bend at the distal end forming a terminal projection 10-14 μm long. The new species is very similar to four other described species, namely R. formosanus, R. juliae, R. thailandae, and R. sirisus. Detailed phylogenetic analysis based on 18S, 28S D2-D3 and ITS sequences has confirmed the status of this nematode as a new species.
Bursaphelenchus decraemerae n. sp., isolated in Ningbo, China, from packaging wood made of Pinus sp. imported from the USA, is described. It is characterised by the lateral field with three lines, a stylet 10-12 μm long with small basal swellings, excretory pore located 4-12 μm posterior to median bulb, spicule small, ventrally arcuate with lamina gradually tapering to distal tip, rostrum triangular pointed to conical, condylus elongated with bluntly rounded tip, and cucullus minute, barely visible. There are seven caudal papillae arranged as a single ventral precloacal papilla, one adcloacal pair and two postcloacal pairs. The bursal flap is narrow and oval. A small vulval flap is present in lateral view of the female and the tail is conical, strongly ventrally curved with the terminus finely pointed and sometimes appearing like a mucron. The new species is characterised by morphological and molecular analysis and is close to B. gerberae and B. sakishimanus.
Ektaphelenchoides compsi is redescribed morphologically with new molecular characterisation. It was isolated from a dead Pinus massoniana tree in Ningde City, Fujian Province, China. Detailed morphology of the spicule, female gonad, hemizonid position, arrangement of male caudal papillae and female tail terminus shape are documented. It is characterised by a lateral field with three lines (forming two bands), tripartite stylet 17.8 (17.0-19.4) μm long without basal thickenings, metacorpus rectangular with anterior 40% granular and posterior part weakly muscular, metacorpal valve slightly posterior to middle of metacorpus, excretory pore at level of nerve ring, vagina with thickened walls and strongly developed muscular bundles, vulval lips slightly protuberant, vulval flap absent, distal region of post-vulval uterine sac appearing as a weakly developed oogonia, anus and rectum indistinct, female posterior part (‘tail’) dorsally convex, conical, terminal region contracted into a bluntly pointed tip. The spicules are arcuate, 15.6 (14.3-16.3) μm along the chord, lamina smoothly curved to distal end, capitulum slightly concave, condylus well-developed with broadly rounded tip and slightly depressed at dorsal end, rostrum triangular with finely rounded tip, cucullus absent, and with seven caudal papillae present. The near full length 18S and 28S D2-D3 regions of rRNA genes sequences were characterised. The phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Fujian population of E. compsi grouped with the Zhejiang population of E. compsi, both being morphologically identical.
Radopholoides japonicus n. sp. isolated from rhizospheric soil samples associated with Podocarpus macrophyllus imported from Japan into Ningbo Port of China is described and illustrated. It is characterised by four lateral lines, lip region low, convex with three annuli. Stylet 16.5-18.5 μm long with anteriorly sloping rounded knobs. Excretory pore at the level of pharyngo-intestinal junction. Vulva posteriorly located, vulval lips not protruding, spermatheca squarish. Post-vulval uterine sac 35-44 μm long. Tail conoid with broadly rounded terminus, phasmid 6-8 annuli posterior to anus. Among five species of genus Radopholoides, the new species is close to R. antoni but can be differentiated from it by lip and tail morphology. This is the first Radopholoides species that provided detailed morphological and molecular characterisation. Maximum Likelihood analysis using the Shimodaira-Hasegawa test for the validity of Radopholoides was performed and showed the validity of the genus using the partial 18S and D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S.
During quarantine inspections, a new species of Hoplotylus was detected from the rhizosphere of the Japanese maple, Acer palmatum, imported into China from Japan. Hoplotylus japonicus n. sp. is characterised by a stout 431-602 μm long body, well-developed 20.0-24.5 μm long stylet with tulip-shaped knobs having rounded sides in lateral view and a rounded anterior margin, excretory pore located slightly posterior to the hemizonid, usually empty, spermatheca, conical tail with a spike-like projection, which is distally smooth on the dorsal side, and males not found. It was morphologically compared with four currently known species of the genus, viz., H. femina, H. montanus, H. silvaticus, and H. sjacobi. In molecular phylogenetic analyses using 18S, 28S and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA sequences, the new species formed a clade with the only currently sequenced species of the genus, H. femina, in all phylogenies. This is the second species of the genus characterised by molecular data and the second species recovered from Japan.
Bursaphelenchus rockyi n. sp., isolated in Peking, China, from peat moss imported from Russia, is described. It is characterised by a lateral field with four lines, excretory pore located at the base of the nerve ring or slightly posterior, spicule 15.9 (15.1-17.3) μm long along the chord and with high condylus and a rounded tip, rostrum triangular or conical with bluntly pointed tip, lamina curvature becoming more pronounced at 60% of total length, six caudal papillae with P3 and P4 adjacent to each other, bursa small, starting posterior to P4, vulval lips hemispherical and protruding, and tail conical with finely rounded or mucronated terminus. The new species belongs to the fungivorus-group and is most similar to B. arthuri, B. arthuroides, B. fungivorus and B. seani, but can be distinguished from related species by morphological and sequencing results.
Discocriconemella sinensis n. sp. isolated in Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China, from the rhizosphere of Camellia sinenis is described. The new species was characterised morphologically and molecularly. Important morphological details were elucidated by SEM photographs. The new species is characterised by an uninterrupted rounded cephalic disc, en face showing a rectangular labial plate with slit-like oral apertures, labial plate surrounded by slightly elevated projections resembling rudimentary lobes, R = 66 (64-69), Rex = 21 (17-24), stylet 74 (67-81) μm long, excretory pore located at the base of the pharyngeal bulb, vulva open, tail short and conoid with a lobed terminus. The species belongs to the group 1 lip pattern. Morphologically, it is most similar to D. discolabia, D. mauritiensis, D. mineira and D. perseae. This is the first new Discocriconemella species described from China. Phylogenetic analyses based on analysis of the D2-D3 expansion segments of the 28S rRNA, ITS rRNA, partial 18S rRNA, and COI gene revealed that the new species formed a separate clade from other criconematid species, thereby supporting its status as a new species of the genus. The new species showed close relationships with Criconemoides informis.