Chemical communication is likely to play an important role during agonistic encounters in aquatic crustaceans but the use of chemical signals is difficult to observe. An alternative approach to direct observation is to collect water that has contained fighting animals and then expose a focal animal of the same species to the cue water and monitor its behaviour. Here we investigate the possibility of the use of chemical cues during 'shell fights' in the hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus. Focal crabs exposed to the fighting cue spent more time withdrawn into their gastropod shell, less time on locomotion and less time searching for food than did those exposed to cues from non-fighting hermit crabs or those treated with plain sea water. At the end of the observation period we used a novel stimulus to induce a startle response in order to probe the focal crab's motivational state for this exploratory behaviour. Those exposed to the fighting cue water took longer to recover than crabs in the other groups, indicating that their motivation was lower. These findings provide clear evidence that chemical cues are a feature of these contests.
This study of a series of artistic representations of the Asia Pacific War experience in a variety of Japanese media is premised on Walter Davis' assertion that traumatic events and experiences must be 'constituted' before they can be assimilated, integrated and understood. Arguing that the contribution of the arts to the constitution, integration and comprehension of traumatic historical events has yet to be sufficiently acknowledged or articulated, the contributors to this volume examine how various Japanese authors and other artists have drawn upon their imaginative powers to create affect-charged forms and images of the extreme violence, psychological damage and ideological contradiction surrounding the War. In so doing, they seek to further the process whereby reading and viewing audiences are encouraged to virtually engage, internalize, 'know' and respond to trauma in concrete, ethical terms.
Canada is often characterised as a mosaic for world cultures while contending with the difficulty of defining its national identity. Canada’s confederation in 1867 was influenced by the fear that then-British North America was at risk from the United States’ internal conflicting forces. This sense of vulnerability bred the desire to strengthen the position of the British North American colonies while avoiding the violent internal conflicts which plagued its southern neighbour. In the decades since its formation, Canadian political parties have learnt that national campaigns, not regional or local ones, tend to have the greatest impact upon voters’ intentions in Canadian federal elections. As the North has come to provide Canadians with a subject of national significance and resonance, the North has come to be increasingly seen as an important symbol of the country and an important component of Canada’s domestic politics. Understanding the relationship dynamics of the Canadian Armed Forces, the Government of Canada and the idea of the North in Canada has broader implications for states wishing to cooperate or negotiate with Canada on matters pertaining to Canada’s Northern region.