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Rhetoric and Experimentation in Britain, 1918-48
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How do doctors decide whether their drugs, or other treatments, actually work? In practice this can be fiendishly difficult. Nowadays the gold standard is the randomised controlled trial (RCT). But the RCT is a recent invention, and the story of how it came to dominate therapeutic evaluation from the latter half of the twentieth century involves acrimony, confrontation, and manipulation of the powerful rhetoric of ‘control’.
Control and the Therapeutic Trial examines the development of the RCT from the eclectic collection of methodologies available to practitioners in the early-twentieth century. In particular, it explores the British Medical Research Council’s (MRC) exploitation of the term ‘controlled’ to help establish its own ‘controlled trials’ as the gold standard for therapeutic evaluation, and, ultimately, the MRC itself as the proper authority to adjudicate on therapeutic efficacy. This rhetorical power still clings, and is exploited today.
Control and the Therapeutic Trial will be of interest not only to historians of twentieth-century medicine and practising clinicians who take therapeutic decisions, but to anyone who seeks a broader insight into the forces that shaped, and control, the modern controlled trial.
In The Conspiracy of Modern Art the Brazilian critic and art-historian Luiz Renato Martins presents a new account of modern art from David to Abstract Expressionism. The once vibrant debate on these touchstones of modernism has gone stale. Viewed from the Sao Paulo megalopolis the art of Paris and New York - embodying Revolution, Thermidor, Bonapartistm and Bourgeois ‘Triumph' - once more pulsates in tragic key.
Equally attentive to form and politics, Martins invites us to look again at familiar pictures. In the process, modern art appears in a new light. These essays, largely unknown to an English-speaking audience, may be the most important contribution to the account of modern painting since the important debates of the 1980s.
In: Wadi Hammeh 27, an Early Natufian Settlement at Pella in Jordan


This article uses Wales as a case study to discuss the challenges to accessing the benefits of paediatric research before and during the covid-19 pandemic. Due to the rapidly changing political and legislative landscape, it is critical that health professionals working for the benefit of children can utilise international human rights treaties and the most relevant General Comments that offer a bridge between legalistic provisions and practice. Additionally, it is vital for health professionals to interpret and understand domestic children’s rights legislation, including tools for implementation for realising children’s rights. This article shares learning from the Children’s Hospital for Wales, Children and Young Adult Research Unit’s endeavour to challenge the Welsh Government to pay due regard to the rights of the child in ensuring children can access the benefits of paediatric research; including research concerning children’s role in infection and transmission, during the pandemic.

Free access
In: The International Journal of Children's Rights


This article reports on recent fieldwork at the site of the early Islamic city Basra, located fifteen kilometres to the southwest of the modern city. The article sets the site within the geographical and historical context of early Islamic Iraq with particular reference to Kufa and Wāsit. In addition, the article contains a review of previous archaeological research followed by a summary of the results from current fieldwork carried out by the authors. Finally, this text highlights the need for further fieldwork both to answer research questions and protect the valuable heritage of Iraq’s first Muslim city.

Open Access
In: Journal of Material Cultures in the Muslim World
The Age of Nationalism and the Great War
War Memorials were an important element of nation building, for the invention of traditions, and the establishment of historical traditions. Especially nationalist remembrance in the late 19th century and the memory of the First World War stimulated a memorial boom in the period which the present book is focusing on.
The remembrance of war is nothing particularly new in history, since victories in decisive battles had been of interest since ancient times. However, the age of nationalism and the First World War triggered a new level of war remembrance that was expressed in countless memorials all over the world. The present volume presents the research of international specialists from different disciplines within the Humanities, whose research is dealing with the role of war memorials for the remembrance of conflicts like the First World War and their perceptions within the analyzed societies. It will be shown how memorials – in several different chronological and geographical contexts – were used to remember the dead, remind the survivors, and warn the descendants.