Martin Hennig

Abstract

In this article, the author assesses whether Canadian Inuit sealers, who have suffered economic damage in the wake of the introduction of the European Union (EU) ban on seal products, can bring an action for damages against the EU before the European Court of Justice. The author reviews why the EU ban on seal hunting violates World Trade Office (WTO) law and discusses if, and why, Canadian Inuit sealers can rely on a violation of the WTO Agreements as a legal basis in a potential claim for damages under EU law. Moreover, the author criticizes the current state of EU law, which does not grant reparation of the economic damage suffered by indigenous communities when carrying out their traditional seal hunts that are protected under UN human rights law.

Martin Hennig

The virtual world of modern MMORPGs (Massively Multiplayer Online Role- Playing Games) can be defined as a ludic, narrative as well as a social room: what happens in the fictional world of a (online-) computer game is determined on the one hand by the rules of the game, and on the other hand by its narrative structures and contexts, as well as by a communicative component between the players. Research into this complex environment must consider more and more complex story contents and game structures, whose effects and discursive potential should not be underestimated due to the global distribution of the products. In this respect, the MMORPG must be regarded as a paradigmatic representative of a development which leads to the boundaries between the real products and the social, political and economic contexts, in which these are embedded, becoming increasingly blurred. In particular, online computer games can be read as a paradigm of both a discursive practice entering the home and the dispositif (Foucault) of the virtual space, which manifests itself within the rules and laws of the game. Just from this dialectic of the game, between its strong rules and playing liberty, both the conformist and subversive efficiency of the MMORPG arises. Since the interaction between the players takes place only technically mediated, it has to be assumed that reality's valid specifications of social behavior are reflected here critically or reconsidered with respect to their load-capacity in socially self-contained rooms. Therefore, the central problem is, whether the anonymity of the user leads to different behaviors than in real life – or are the social events in the game limited by their ludic and narrative specifications?

Martin Hennig

In his research about remakes, Wolfgang Arend suggests that classical stories like Romeo and Juliet are universally understandable, if they are reduced to minimal narrative structures. In this respect, the question arises whether a story can go unchanged through a geographical transposition, or if it must come to narrative transformations in order to enable an understanding in relation to the respective cultural background. This thesis could be verified based on horror movies and their cross-cultural remakes. Hollywood horror films usually take place on the border between the normality, following the laws of nature, and the location of the inexplicable, the illogical and chaos. The fear of the unknown is driven by conservative values here, centered on Christianity and monotheism. In contrast, there exists no two worlds system in the recent Japanese horror film. Accordingly to the ideas of Shinto, all people have a soul which is united with those of the ancestors after death. Strong feeling affairs (revenge, desire, love), however, can lead to a temporarily remain as a ghost (Yūrei) in the real world. Accordingly, the world of men is the same as that of the spirits. It is mainly this cultural difference, which is responsible for the different characteristics of Japanese films like Ringu, Ju-on, or Kairo and their American remakes The Ring, The Grudge, and Pulse. Correspondingly, the paper will take a closer look on differing contextual factors (like time of release, target audiences, cultural backgrounds) and corresponding changes in the cinematic treatment of the same material.

Grube, Andreas, Hennig, Martin and Reuter, Hans-Richard

Gerlitz, Peter, Hennig, Gerhard, Ivanov, Vladimir, Jongeneel, Jan A.B., Ohst, Martin, Root, Michael and Sattler, Dorothea