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This chapter examines some of the contradictions and conflicts in 18th century international politics and political thought. It opposes the Christian pacifism of Fénelon with the Hobbersian realism of the Abbé de Saint-Pierre and the ideologies behind the pragmatic comprise that was the balance of power. It contrasts the development of the Public Law of Europe with the commercial spirit and the spread of ideas of “liberty” in the (British) colonies with expanding slave trade across the Atlantic Ocean. Overcoming the “crisis of European conscience” meant learning to live with belief in contradictory things.

In: The 1713 Peace of Utrecht and its Enduring Effects
The debate about the relationship between international and community law usually centres on the question of which of these two `belongs' to the other, and how `special' community legal order is in relation to international law.
In this volume, a distinguished group of Finnish and British academics and practitioners break new ground by, instead of becoming mired in these questions, clearly examining the international law aspects of the activities of the Community and the Union. In doing so, they have elucidated points of connection and possible points of conflict. The result is a thought-provoking collection of essays which examines community law through the conceptual grid of international law, and thus enriches our understanding of the workings of both.
In: Nordic Approaches to International Law
In: Vattel's International Law from a XXIst Century Perspective / Le Droit International de Vattel vu du XXIe Siècle
In: The Role of Legal Advisers in International Law