This chapter questions gender biases that are entrenched in culture and traditions. It shows the gap between education policy and practice. The practice here is women’s participation in non-formal and Vocational Education and Training programs. The chapter urges policy makers to bring reforms in the vocational track of the education system, by incorporating the reality that many women face. Through Participatory Action Research method, Iyengar and Witenstein try to illicit the cultural, religious, intergenerational practices that tend to thwart basic human rights for women in India.
In this concluding chapter, the authors urge researchers to be open to many ways of thinking about their research questions and modes of analysis. The authors first revisit earlier chapters and summarize their work mainly focussing on the importance of voice in research, suggesting strategies to decolonize and innovate research and practice to amplify voices and participation. The objective of the chapter is to urge researchers and practitioners to continuously question their own research agendas to make them more inclusive. The authors conclude the chapters by recommending ideas that will enable researchers to approach crafting research ideas and their treatment with more caution.
Conversations related to epistemology and methodology have been present in comparative and international education (CIE) since the field’s inception. How CIE phenomena are studied, the questions asked, the tools used, and ideas about knowledge and reality that they reflect, shape the nature of the knowledge produced, the valuing of that knowledge, and the implications for practice in diverse societies. This book is part of a growing conversation in which the ways that standardized practices in CIE research have functioned to reproduce problematic hierarchies, silences and exclusions of diverse peoples, societies, knowledges, and realities. Argued is that there must be recognition and understanding of the negative consequences of hegemonic onto-epistemologies and methodologies in CIE, dominantly sourced in European social science traditions, that continue to shape and influence the design, implementation and dissemination/application of CIE research knowledge. Yet, while critical reflection is necessary, it alone is insufficient to realize the transformative change called for: as students, researchers, practitioners and policymakers, we must hear and heed calls for concrete action to challenge, resist and transform the status quo in the field and work to further realize a more ethical and inclusive CIE.
Interrogating and Innovating Comparative and International Research presents a series of conceptual and empirically-based essays that critically explore and problematize the dominance of Eurocentric epistemological and methodological traditions in CIE research. As an action-oriented volume, the contributions do not end with critique, rather suggestions are made and orientations modelled from different perspectives about the possibilities for change in CIE.
Contributors are: Emily Anderson, Supriya Baily, Gerardo L. Blanco, Alisha Braun, Erik Jon Byker, Meagan Call-Cummings, Brendan J. DeCoster, D. Brent Edwards Jr., Sothy Eng, Ameena Ghaffar-Kucher, Jeremy Gombin-Sperling, Kelly Grace, Radhika Iyengar, Huma Kidwai, Lê Minh Hằng, Caroline Manion, Patricia S. Parker, Leigh Patel, Timothy D. Reedy, Karen Ross, Betsy Scotto-Lavino, Payal P. Shah, Derrick Tu, and Matthew A. Witenstein.