This essay is a brief comment on the preceding essays, highlighting two issues of significance raised by these authors. The first is whether the frontier itself influenced the evolution of Orthodox belief. Did distance create an opportunity to expand the faith? The second question considers the impact of the Russian Empire on its religious communities, and examines the way in which religion can reveal the tension between center and periphery. To address these issues, this comment adds a reflection on the conversion mission among the Muslim and animist communities in and around Kazan in the early modern period.