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Part VI of Keys to the Insects of the European Part of the USSR covers the suborder Symphyta of the phytophagous Hymenoptera (sawflies and woodwasps), small superfamilies Trigonaloidea, Stephanoidea, Evanioidea of parasitic Apocrita, and the family Paxilommatidae of the superfamily Ichneumonoidea. Identification keys are provided for 18 families, 123 genera and over 900 species which include a large number of economically important species — the pests of agricultural crops and timber as well as entomophages. A brief outline of morphology and biology, synonymy and geographic distribution is given for each family and genus and the known host-plants are indicated for every species. Three species have been described for the first time and 12 new subgenera have been separated.
Bibliography — 88 citations; 217 illustrations.
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Abstract

In this article, the author discusses contemporary Russian judicial practice concerning the legality of attorney's conditional fees. He starts with a brief overview of foreign practice and distinguishes various kinds of conditional fees. The author provides a classification of conditional fees, through the prism of which he evaluates judicial practice in Russia. He distinguishes and, in particular, contrasts the contingent (or contingency) fee from (with) the conditional fee per se (the conditional fee in the narrow sense). The main focus is on a landmark 2007 Decision of the RF Constitutional Court in which the Court ruled against conditional fees in Russia. The author provides a detailed analysis of the Decision. He supports a view which is in clear opposition to the Constitutional Court, finding the Decision facile, criticizing its motivation and questioning its feasibility. The author describes the claims submitted to the Court, the findings of the Court, and the conclusions reached by the Court. Furthermore, he considers the impact which the Decision may have on judicial practice. The author concludes by discussing the possible future of conditional fees in the Russian Federation and notes that the Decision of the RF Constitutional Court may not constitute the final word on the issue. He advocates further and more in-depth research on the nature of conditional fees.

In: Review of Central and East European Law
In: Manufacturing a Past for the Present
In: Manufacturing a Past for the Present

Abstract

After the liberation of the western republics of the Soviet Union from the German occupation, armed resistance to Soviet rule started, it forced the state to use significant resources to stabilize the situation. In the article, based on the reporting and management documentation of the NKVD bodies and party control documents, an attempt is made to explore the range of tasks, management methods, and methods of using fighter battalions, which were created in Western Ukraine, Belarus and the Baltic states immediately after the liberation of these territories. Particular emphasis is placed on the institutional and social history of these units, the personnel composition is analyzed, and the dynamics of its change during the study period is traced. Similar features and differences are revealed in the methods of formation and use of battalions operating in different republics. An attempt is being made to understand the motivation of the servicemen joining the ranks of the battalions, and determine what role personal interest played in their recruitment or acts of violence by the rebels. The study of the identified issues will allow not only to analyze a wide range of issues related to the activities of the NKVD fighter battalions at the final stage of the war, but also to supplement the understanding of how the Soviet state managed to win the civil war in the western borderlands.

In: The Soviet and Post-Soviet Review